digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

For the villages in Iran, see Avala, Iran.
Avala
Planina Avala.JPG
Sunrise above the Avala, before Avala TV Tower reconstruction
Elevation 511 m (1,677 ft)
Translation Obstacle, shelter (Arabic)
Location
Avala is located in Serbia
Avala
Avala
Serbia
Coordinates 44°41′25″N 20°30′51″E / 44.69028°N 20.51417°E / 44.69028; 20.51417Coordinates: 44°41′25″N 20°30′51″E / 44.69028°N 20.51417°E / 44.69028; 20.51417

Avala (Serbian Cyrillic: Авала, pronounced [âv̞ala]) is a mountain in Serbia, overlooking Belgrade. It is situated in the south-eastern corner of the city and provides a great panoramic view of Belgrade, Vojvodina and Šumadija, as the surrounding area on all sides is mostly lowlands. It stands at 511 metres (1,677 ft) above sea level, which means that it enters the mountain category just by 11 meters.

Location[edit]

Avala is located 16 kilometers south-east of downtown Belgrade. The entire area of the mountain belongs to the Belgrade City area, majority of it being in the municipality of Voždovac, with the eastern slopes being in the municipality of Grocka, and the southernmost extension in the municipality of Sopot. It is possible that in the near future the entire area of Avala will create a separate municipality of Belgrade, named Avalski Venac.

Geography[edit]

Avala is a low type of the Pannonian island mountain, though it is actually the northernmost mountain in Šumadija. Until 600,000 years ago, when the surrounding low areas were flooded by the inner Pannonian Sea, Avala was an island, just as the neighboring mountains (Kosmaj, Fruška Gora, etc.), thus earning its geographical classification. However, the Avala remains an "island mountain" as the area around it, Pinosava plateau of the northern Low Šumadija, is low and mostly flat. In the north it extends into the woods of Stepin Lug.

The mountain is built of serpentinite, limestone and magmatic rocks, which are injected in the shape of cone (laccolith). Other peaks include Ladne vode (340 meters), Zvečara (347 meters), Sakinac (315 meters). The Avala had deposits of ores, most notably lead and mercury's ore of cinnabarite but mining activities which can be traced to the pre-Antiquity times, ceased in the 1960s. Avala is also a location where the mineral avalite, named after the mountain, was found. AA greenish mineral, chromian, magnesian or potassic alumosilicate (variety of the mineral illite), it was discovered by Serbian chemist Simo Lozanić who established its formula. Optically examined by the Israeli mineralogist Tamir Grodek who classified it as a member of the mica mineral group.[1]

Despite being only mountain in the area, the Avala is not a source of many rivers. The Topčiderka river, originating in the woods of Lipovička šuma on the south-west, flows on the western slopes of Avala, while river Bolečica flows on the eastern slopes. Other minor flows include the Vranovac, a tributary to the Bolečica. Small artificial lake near the village of Pinosava is created on the western slope of the mountain. The settlements in the area are notorious for problems with shortages of drinking water during summer.

Name and human history[edit]

In the Middle Ages, the town of Žrnov or "Avalski Grad" (Avala town) was located on top of Avala. In 1442. it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire, which built a new town in Žrnov's place as a counter-fortress to the Belgrade city fort, and renamed it "havale", which originally comes from Arabic and means "obstacle" or "shelter".

The mountain has been protected since 1859 [2] as a "monument of nature", or, by the modern standards, "sight of the exquisite values". That year, Prince Miloš Obrenović of Serbia issued an order for the Avala to get fenced and protected that way. Remains of the medieval Žrnov were removed in 1934 to make way for the Monument to the Unknown Hero. In the period of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the mountain was declared a national park, in 1936. In 1946, by the ukaz of the Presidium of the National Assembly of Serbia, Avala was reduced to the status of the "public property of general benefit" and placed under direct management of the Government of Serbia. In 1965, a 202 m high Avala TV Tower was constructed, one of the tallest structures in the Balkans, by the architects Uglješa Bogunović, Slobodan Janjić and M. Krstić. It had a restaurant-look out on 120 meters. The tower was destroyed during the NATO bombing of Serbia in 1999. Its total reconstruction began in 2006 and was officially opened at a ceremony on 21 April 2010. The new tower is almost the exact replica of the destroyed one, including the unique three-feet base. Belgrade's General Urbanistic Plan (GUP) for the 2001-2021 period defines the mountain as a sports and recreation area.

Settlements[edit]

Settlements near the mountain are not much populous. They include Ripanj (on the south, the largest one, with a population of 28,360 by the 2010 census of population), Pinosava (on the west, 2,839), Zuce (on the north-east, 2,024), Beli Potok (on the north, 3,417), all in the municipality of Voždovac, and Vrčin (on the east, 8,667), in the municipality of Grocka. A motion is in the process of creating a new municipality called Avalski Venac, which would include all these settlements and possible few others, but Zoran Alimpić, the acting mayor of Belgrade from September 2007 to August 2008, stated that new municipalities will probably not be formed before 2011 or 2012.

Wildlife[edit]

Despite being officially protected for almost 150 years, it was only in 2007 that preservation plans for the mountain were made. That way, Avala entered a circle of protected green areas of Belgrade, which also included the mountain of Kosmaj, the island of Veliko Ratno Ostrvo and the woods of Stepin Lug, with the forests of Košutnjak and Topčider to be added next. Protected areas of Avala spread over 489,13 hectares.

Aside from rich animal life, the Avala is known for its diverse plant life, despite not being a tall mountain. There are over 600 plant species living on the mountain. Some of them are protected by the law as natural rarities, like certain types of laburnum or box tree. The area is also abundant in medical herbs. High woods mostly consist of durmast oak, Turkey oak, hornbeam, beech, linden, black pine, black locust and other trees.

Transportation[edit]

Avala is well connected with Belgrade and other parts of Serbia via roads, highway and railroads.

Avalski drum ("Avala road") is an extension of the Boulevard of the Liberation, which directly connects the mountain to downtown Belgrade (via neighborhoods of Selo Rakovica, Jajinci, Banjica, Voždovac, Autokomanda, Karađorđev Park and Slavija). On the mountain, Avalski drum divides in three:

  • one section is a circular road which goes to the top of the mountain.
  • second section continues to the south-west, through Ripanj, Lipovička Šuma and Barajevo, and makes a connection to the major road in the western Serbia, Ibarska magistrala.
  • third section goes south-east, parallel to the highway, through Trešnja and Ralja and further to the south and east (where it meets the highway).

Sub-Avalan settlements are directly connected to Belgrade by the bus lines of the city's public transportation, with terminus in the Belgrade's neighborhood of Trošarina.

The Belgrade–Niš highway, a section of one of the major European roads, European route E75, runs east of the mountain, through Vrčin. North of the mountain runs Kružni put, the most important road in the southern outskirts of Belgrade, which connects all the southern sections of the city. It is also a projected route of the future Belgrade beltway which would continue through the Bolečica river valley and the projected Vinča-Omoljica bridge over the Danube into Vojvodina.

Railroads also run on both sides of the mountain. Eastern branch is a section of the Belgrade-Niš railroad. It runs through the tunnel under the Avala at Beli Potok and then through Včrin. Western branch runs through Ripanj and the long "Ripanj tunnel" (though not under the Avala), and continues into western Serbia and further into Montenegro, as part of the Belgrade–Bar railway.

Tourism[edit]

Avala is a traditional picnic resort for Belgraders, but its capacities are not being used much. In 1984 number of tourists was only 15,700 despite over 1,5 million of inhabitants in Belgrade. Some attractions and capacities on the mountain include:

  • Šuplja Stena, a former very popular children's resort, located on the mountain's wind rose; after the 1990s it turned into a residential place refugees from the Yugoslav Wars
  • Avala Tower, landmark TV Tower that was destroyed during the 1999 NATO bombing of Serbia, later rebuilt.
  • Weekend-settlement on the southern slopes
  • Motel "1000 Ruža" in Beli Potok
  • Hotel "Avala"
  • Trešnja resort, in the southernmost extension of the mountain
  • Projected ethno-park above Beli Potok
  • Monuments
  • Mountaineering camps of Čarapićev brest and Mitrovićev dom

Monuments on Avala[edit]

Monument to the Unknown Hero.

Special attractions of the Avala are several monuments. They include:

Mountaineering camp[edit]

Annually, from July 1 until July 10, a traditional camp of Serbian mountaineers is held on the Avala. Among other mountaineering activities, there are competitions in:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Srpska porodična enciklopedija, Vol. I, "Narodna knjiga" & "Politika", 2006, ISBN 86-331-2730-X
  2. ^ Avala – predeo izuzetnih odlika, Politika (in Serbian), 2008-03-29: 23 
  • Mala Prosvetina Enciklopedija, Third edition (1986), Vol.I; Prosveta; ISBN 86-07-00001-2
  • Jovan Đ. Marković (1990): Enciklopedijski geografski leksikon Jugoslavije; Svjetlost-Sarajevo; ISBN 86-01-02651-6
  • Turističko područje Beograda, "Geokarta", 2007, ISBN 86-459-0099-8

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avala — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
77429 videos foundNext > 

Avala Beograd

Avala mountain tour, wonderful day in Belgrade surroundings and nature. Avala, obilzazak, predivan pogled prirode Beograda i okoline, snimljeno: MM Video Pro...

EC 272 AVALA [+570 min] - tratě 010 a 011 - 12.8.2014

Video ukazuje záběry velmi zpožděného vlaku EC 272 AVALA (Beograd - Praha hl.n.). Vlak byl opožděn z důvodu vykolejení vlaku R (B/G) 340 BEOGRAD (Beograd - B...

Vlaky Brno: PROBLÉMOVÉ EC 271 AVALA, příjezd + start, 30.7.2012

Přijíždějící a startující EC 271 AVALA Praha HL.N. - Beograd, v čele KRYSA 350 001 - 4. Při příjezdu zjištěna technická závada na předposledním voze řady "Be...

NLO iznad Avale! UFO over Avala Tower

Amaterski snimak NLO-a. Avgust 2011.

Avala Tower - Авалски Торањ

The Avala Tower (Serbian: Авалски торањ / Avalski toranj) is a 204.5 m (671 ft) tall telecommunication tower located on Avala mountain near Belgrade, Serbia....

SS3 Avala - Nenadovic/Popovic mali n

5. Beogradski Reli,SS3 Avala,vreme 05.40.45.

Avala Grand Band - Uvele ruze - GS 2013/2014 - 25.10.2013. EM 04.

NEWS: http://www.kurir-info.rs/ GRAND NARODNA TELEVIZIJA ZA CEO SVET NET TV Plus https://www.nettvplus.com Satelit: Eutelsat 16A Frekvencija: 10972 MHz Polar...

Avala Hejje 1981: Full Kannada Movie

Watch Full Length Kannada Movie Avala Hejje release in year 1981. Directed by Bhargava, Produce by N C Ganesh, Music by Rajan Nagendra and Starring Vishnuvar...

Najbolji lapsusi na TV Avala

Mlada dama treba da ga prima... ;-))

EC 344 - Avala EuroCity in Budapest

Avala EuroCity (EC 344) vonat érkezik Belgrád, Kelebia felől Budapest Keleti pályaudvarra a V43 1027-es Szilivel. Avala EuroCity (EC 344) train is arriving f...

77429 videos foundNext > 

30323 news items

 
MarketWatch
Thu, 09 Oct 2014 06:12:04 -0700

LONGUEUIL, QUEBEC, Oct 09, 2014 (Marketwired via COMTEX) -- Further to its news release of October 2, 2014, Avala Resources Ltd. ("Avala" or the "Company") (AVZ) announces that effective at the opening of trading on Thursday, October 9, 2014 (the ...
 
Marketwired (press release)
Thu, 02 Oct 2014 05:45:00 -0700

LONGUEUIL, QUEBEC--(Marketwired - Oct. 2, 2014) - Avala Resources Ltd. (TSX VENTURE:AVZ) ("Avala") and Dunav Resources Ltd. (TSX VENTURE:DNV) ("Dunav") are pleased to announce that they have completed the previously announced business ...
 
Yahoo Finance UK
Fri, 03 Oct 2014 14:18:58 -0700

TO) ("DPM" or the "Company") announces that it has been issued an additional 83,435,171 common shares ("Shares") and 24,399,736 common share purchase warrants ("Warrants") of Avala Resources Ltd. ("Avala") in exchange for its securities held in ...
 
Marketwired (press release)
Wed, 01 Oct 2014 08:11:15 -0700

LONGUEUIL, QUÉBEC--(Marketwired - Oct. 1, 2014) - Avala Resources Ltd. (TSX VENTURE:AVZ) ("Avala") and Dunav Resources Ltd. (TSX VENTURE:DNV) ("Dunav") are pleased to announce that each company held a general and special meeting of ...

ABC.es

ABC.es
Thu, 30 Oct 2014 18:00:32 -0700

El Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Madrid, mediante un auto remitido esta madrugada a los juzgados de Majadahonda considera «conforme a derecho la privación de libertad, así como las circunstancias en que se está llevando a cabo» en las detenciones ...

Republica.com

Republica.com
Thu, 30 Oct 2014 05:36:23 -0700

La Comisión Permanente del Consejo de Estado ha aprobado por unanimidad el dictamen con el que respalda la intención del Gobierno de impugnar ante el Tribunal Constitucional la nueva consulta sobre la independencia de Cataluña que organiza la ...
 
EL PAÍS Catalunya
Thu, 30 Oct 2014 05:54:59 -0700

Aquest òrgan consultiu, a través de la seva Comissió Permanent, ha analitzat les característiques de la nova consulta i, en considerar que són les mateixes, avala de nou la petició del Govern central. El seu dictamen serà incorporat demà a tota la ...

El Confidencial (Comunicado de prensa) (Registro) (blog)

El Confidencial (Comunicado de prensa) (Registro) (blog)
Thu, 30 Oct 2014 05:48:48 -0700

La Reserva Federal (Fed) no sorprendió este miércoles por retirar su tercer programa de compras de deuda (QE3) ni por mantener los tipos de interés entre el 0 y el 0,25%. Sorprendió por el diagnóstico más optimista que ofreció sobre la economía, ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight