digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

An augmentative (abbreviated AUG) is a morphological form of a word which expresses greater intensity, often in size but also in other attributes. It is the opposite of a diminutive.

Since overaugmenting something often makes it grotesque, in some languages augmentatives are used primarily for comical effect or as pejoratives.

Many languages have augmentatives for nouns; some have augmentatives for verbs.

Germanic languages[edit]

English[edit]

In modern English, augmentatives can be created with the prefixes:

  • over-: e.g., overlord and overseer.
  • grand-: e.g., grandmaster and grandparent.
  • super-: e.g., supermarket and superpower.
  • mega-: e.g., mega store and megastar.
  • arch-: e.g., archrival and archangel.

Since the early 1990s, the prefix über- has also frequently been used as a borrowing from German.[1]

In recent years, the suffix -zilla is sometimes used as a jocular augmentative.

Dutch[edit]

In modern Dutch, augmentatives are usually created with the prefixes:

  • over-: e.g., overgewicht and oververhitting (resp. "overweight" and "overheating")
  • groot-: e.g., grootmeester and groothandel (resp. "grandmaster" and "wholesaler")
  • super-: e.g., supermarkt and supermacht (resp. "supermarket" and "superpower").
  • mega-: e.g., megacontract and megabioscoop (resp. "a very big contract," and "a very large movie theater")

There are also prefixes that can be used for some adjectives:

  • bloed-: e.g., bloedmooi and bloedeigen (resp. "very beautiful" and "very own")[2]
  • steen-: e.g., steenrijk and steengoed (resp. "very rich" and "very good"; lit. "stone rich" and "stone good")
  • kei-: e.g., keihard and keileuk (resp. "very fast/hard/&c." and "very fun", lit. "boulder hard" and "boulder fun")

German[edit]

In German, there are different ways to build augmentatives. They are rarely used prefixes:

  • Un-, for instance in Unzahl, Unsumme, Unmenge, Untiefe.
    Un- is more often used for negation (e.g. Unglück, Unsinn).
    This leads sometimes to confusion: Untiefe when referring to water can mean either very deep or shallow water.
  • "Über-", for instance, "Übermensch".
  • Aber-, for instance, Abertausend.

Hellenic languages[edit]

Greek[edit]

Modern Greek has a variety of augmentative suffixes: -α, -άρα, -αράς, ΄-αρος, -άκλα, -ακλάς, ΄-ακλας.

Latin and Romance languages[edit]

Italian[edit]

Italian has several augmentatives:

  • -one, -ona, found also in several English loanwords from Italian: minestrone (< minestra 'soup'); provolone cheese (< provola 'ewe'); cartone (< carta 'paper') appears in English carton and cartoon; ballone (< possibly from balla 'ball', but perhaps a French formation being the proper Italian word "palla"[3]);
  • -accio, -accia (mainly a pejorative): coltellaccio (< coltello 'knife'; gives English cutlass); the family name Carpaccio;
  • -astro, -astra.

Portuguese[edit]

In Portuguese, the most common augmentatives are the masculine -ão (sometimes also -zão or -zarrão) and the feminine -ona (or -zona), although there are others, less frequently used. E.g. carro "car", carrão "big car"; homem "man", homenzarrão "big man"; mulher "woman", mulherona "big woman".

Sometimes, especially in Brazilian Portuguese, the masculine augmentative can be applied to a feminine noun, which then becomes grammatically masculine, but with a feminine meaning (e.g. "o mulherão" instead of "a mulherona" for "the big woman"); however, such cases usually imply subtle meaning twists, mostly with a somewhat gross or vulgar undertone (which, nonetheless, is often intentional, for the sake of wit, malice or otherwise; so, mulherão actually means not a big woman, but a particularly sexy one).

Romanian[edit]

In Romanian there are several augmentative suffixes: -oi/-oaie, -an/-ană etc. (masc/fem pairs). From an unattested Late Latin -onus, -ona, the origin of the other Romance augmentative suffixes. The archaic form has survived unchanged in Banat ( and in Aromanian) as -on', -oan'e As in other languages, a feminine base word may have masculine or feminine forms in the augmentative. Examples:

  • casă (f.) -> căsoi (n.), căsoaie (f.)
  • piatră (f.) -> pietroi (n.)
  • băiat (m.) -> băieţoi (m.)
  • băiat (m.) -> băietan (m.)
  • fată (f.) ->fătoi (f.)

Spanish[edit]

In Spanish, -o becomes -ón and -a becomes -ona most frequently, but -ote/-ota and -azo/-aza (also meaning -blow) are also commonly seen. Others include -udo/-uda, -aco/-aca, -acho/-acha, -uco/-uca, -ucho/-ucha, -astro/-astra and -ejo/-eja. More detail at Spanish nouns.

Slavic languages[edit]

Bulgarian[edit]

In Bulgarian, as in Russian, mainly with -ище.

Polish[edit]

In Polish there is a variety of augmentatives formed with suffixes, for example: żaba (a frog) - żabucha - żabsko - żabisko - żabula or kamień (a stone) - kamulec - kamior etc.

Russian[edit]

In Russian there is a variety of augmentatives formed with suffixes, including -ище and -ин for example: дом (the house) домище (great house) домина (huge house). To provide an impression of excessive qualities the suffix -га can be used for example: ветер (the wind), ветрюга (strong wind).

Serbian and Croatian[edit]

In Serbian and Croatian there is a variety of augmentatives formed with suffixes, most commonly with -ina.

Semitic languages[edit]

Arabic[edit]

Form II of the Arabic verb often has an augmentative sense, which may indicate intensity (intensive) or repetition (frequentative).[4]

International auxiliary languages[edit]

Esperanto[edit]

In Esperanto, the -eg- suffix is included before the final part-of-speech vowel. For example, domo (house) becomes domego (mansion). See Esperanto vocabulary.

Interlingua[edit]

Interlingua does not have an augmentative suffix, but international prefixes such as super-, hyper-, mega- can be used as augmentatives. See also Interlingua grammar.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "uber". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 
  2. ^ Note that Dutch bloed- is unrelated to English bloody. The former is formed in analogy with bloedeigen (‘very own’), bloedrood (‘very red’), &c. wherein it originally had its proper meaning ‘blood’ (‘of your own blood’, and ‘blood red’) whereas the latter's origin is uncertain but according to the OED might refer to the habits of the aristocracy (those of the blood): bloody drunk.
  3. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, s.v. balloon
  4. ^ Mark W. Cowell, A Reference Grammar of Syrian Arabic. Georgetown University Press, 2005. ISBN 1-58901-051-5. p. 253

See also[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augmentative — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
46355 videos foundNext > 

Augmentative & Alternative Communication Devices

This video introduces viewers to the concept of augmentative and alternative communication and how speech communication devices can help those challenged by ...

What is AAC? Augmentative and Alternative Communication

http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/service/a/aaron-perlman-center/assistive-technology/communication/default/ AAC stands for augmentative and alternative com...

Basics of AAC (Augmentative and Alternative Communication)

Oklahoma ABLE Tech's the "Basics of AAC" defines AAC, or Augmentative and Alternative Communication, and includes low-, mid-, and high-tech solutions for peo...

Augmentative and Alternative Communication Devices

Learn about how Augmentative Communication Devices can assist individuals with communication and dexterity limitations. Visit us online at http://cap.mil/ St...

Gesture Augmentative and Alternative Communication

PiktoPlus 3D. Alternative and Augmentative Communication System.

This is PiktoPlus, our newest development: An Alternative and Augmentative Communication System. Based on customizable 3D pictograms. piktoplus@gmail.com lim...

Laser Pointers for Low Tech Augmentative Communication

An overview of using a head mounted laser pointer as one form of low tech communication.

Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC): Evidence-based Principles and Practice

Visit: http://www.uctv.tv/) Kristen Carroll and Bonnie Mintun discuss the basics of choosing and using communication devices and strategies for those who ex...

Augmentative and Alternative Communication

Augmentative and Alternative Communication http://www.assistiveapps.com/

Gena Bellino Shows the ECO Augmentative Communication Device

Gena Carla Bellino, 25 year old girl with Cerebral Palsy, demonstrates the ECO Augmentative Communication Device.

46355 videos foundNext > 

59 news items

 
Gizmag
Mon, 21 Jul 2014 09:18:45 -0700

The inventor of the device, 16 year-old Arsh Shah Dilbagi, says he believes it is the only augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) device to use breath as an input, that it is the most affordable AAC device available, and that it has the ...
 
ADVANCE for Speech-Language Pathologists and Audiologists (blog)
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:37:30 -0700

Children who use Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) typically do not have access to spoken language as a viable means of communication. They may use a wheelchair and have motoric challenges. How can they change the situation ...
 
DigitalJournal.com
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 21:31:20 -0700

New Delhi, India -- (SBWIRE) -- 07/24/2014 -- TALK is an Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) device which enables people with Developmental Disabilities & Speech Impairments to communicate in normal form of speech. It is Ultra-Portable, ...

eMaxHealth

eMaxHealth
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 06:52:30 -0700

... recently celebrated his twelfth birthday. Although during these years he has had downs along with the ups, he now communicated through using augmentative communication devices. This year he participated in an inter school games day at Variety Village.
 
The New Indian Express
Wed, 23 Jul 2014 19:15:00 -0700

Along with education, the course will equip candidates to work on Augmentative and Alternative Communication methods (AAC) and multiple disabilities with low vision. The course has evolved over the last 23 years. The curriculum and syllabus has been ...

Boston Globe (blog)

Boston Globe (blog)
Mon, 21 Jul 2014 21:07:30 -0700

After the ALS diagnosis, Ms. Ladd took advantage of technological advances and recorded hundreds of phrases in her own voice through a system set up by John Costello, director of the augmentative communication program at Boston Children's Hospital.

Eugene Weekly

Eugene Weekly
Thu, 17 Jul 2014 08:00:00 -0700

The dramatic upset became known as the Maracanaço in Brazil and as the Maracanazo in Uruguay and almost everywhere else (-aćo and –azo are augmentative suffixes in Portuguese and Spanish, respectively, which may also denote a big blow). Brazilian ...
 
Consumer Electronics Net
Thu, 24 Jul 2014 05:00:00 -0700

Easter Seals Massachusetts will expand the reach of their Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) expertise to more children and adults with disabilities. This grant will allow them to develop an AAC training model for Easter Seals speech ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Augmentative

You can talk about Augmentative with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!