|System||Long Island Rail Road|
|Locale||Western Long Island, New York, USA|
|Stations||8 passenger, 1 employee-only|
|Opening||1836 (west of Jamaica)
1867 (east of Jamaica)
|Owner||Long Island Rail Road|
|Operator(s)||Metropolitan Transportation Authority|
|Track gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm)|
|Electrification||750V (DC) Third rail|
The Atlantic Branch is an electrified rail line owned and operated by the Long Island Rail Road in the U.S. state of New York. It is the only LIRR line that runs in the borough of Brooklyn above Atlantic Avenue.
Partly underground and partly elevated, the Atlantic Branch runs from Atlantic Terminal in Downtown Brooklyn to Valley Stream, in Nassau County, where it becomes the two-track Long Beach Branch with the two-track Far Rockaway Branch splitting southward just east of the Valley Stream station.
The section between Atlantic Terminal and Bedford Avenue is underground along Atlantic Avenue. From there the line is elevated above the median of Atlantic Avenue to Dewey Place (with a stop at Nostrand Avenue) before returning underground.
At East New York the line rises to street level to cross above the north-south, freight only Bay Ridge Branch, then descends once more to Jamaica. Between East New York and Jamaica, the intact but closed station at Woodhaven Junction is visible.
It turns southeast immediately east of Jamaica, ducking beneath the eastward Main Line tracks. It curves parallel to the Montauk Branch after a few miles and continues next to it to Valley Interlocking in Valley Stream.
Atlantic Terminal saw completion in 2010 of $93 million in renovations, including a new entry pavilion.
The current Atlantic Branch is the successor to two separate lines: the Brooklyn and Jamaica Railroad (opened 1836) along Atlantic Avenue from Flatbush Avenue to Jamaica, and the South Side Railroad of Long Island (opened 1867) from Jamaica to Valley Stream.
Atlantic Terminal to Jamaica
Initially the line turned halfway between Classon and Franklin Avenues, running halfway between Herkimer Street and Schuyler Street (now Atlantic Avenue) along the line of the present Herkimer Place. It turned slightly to the southeast near Howard Avenue, crossing the centerline of Schuyler Street about one-third of the way between Hopkinson Avenue (Thomas Boyland Street) and Paca Avenue (Rockaway Avenue). It crossed into the town of New Lots just beyond Stone Avenue (Mother Gaston Boulevard).
The Atlantic Branch was one of the first lines in the LIRR system slated to be electrified. In anticipation of this the entire line to Jamaica was to be grade separated. Between 1903 and 1905 the line was depressed into a tunnel from Flatbush Avenue to Bedford Avenue, then placed on an elevated viaduct from Bedford Avenue to Ralph Avenue then depressed back into a tunnel until Manhattan Crossing located just west East New York station. At East New York the line returned to grade level then rose onto another elevated viaduct until Atkins Ave. The rest of the line from Atkins Ave to Morris Park located just west of Jamaica remained at grade level along Atlantic Avenue with numerous grade crossings with the anticipation of grade separating the line later on. Additionally a new terminal and yard was built at Flatbush and Atlantic Avenues. Electric service commenced in 1905 with the line consisting of two tracks between Flatbush Avenue and Woodhaven Junction and four tracks beyond that point to Jamaica.
LIRR then ran two services along the line: the traditional commuter type services from points on eastern Long Island to Flatbush Avenue, along with what was called the "local" rapid transit type service, frequent elevated/subway like service at lower fare between Flatbush Ave and Queens Village (although referred to as a rapid transit type service, standard LIRR cars were used, and the service was operated by railroad rules, as opposed to rapid transit). At this time the line from Jamaica to East New York had many more stations along Atlantic Avenue spaced at closer intervals, much like an elevated/subway rapid transit line. The four tracks between Jamaica and Woodhaven Junction lent itself to this service with rapid transit trains using the outer two tracks while commuter trains used the inner two tracks.
In November 1925 25 "local" trains left Brooklyn each weekday for Queens Village, 12 more ran to Hillside, and 16 more ran to Jamaica. All trains made all stops, 15 of them west of Queens Village. Fare was probably 10 cents for 13 miles Queens Village to Brooklyn, compared to about 40 cents on "express" LIRR trains making six or seven stops (but a monthly ticket good on any train was $7.10).
For a while the LIRR operated joint service along the Atlantic Branch with the Brooklyn Rapid Transit company (BRT) consisting of two connections, one with the Fifth Ave El at Flatbush Avenue, and another with the Broadway and Lexington Avenue els with a connection built at Chestnut Street in Brooklyn. This allowed BRT trains to access the Rockaways and Manhattan Beach, while affording the LIRR a connection into Manhattan to the BRT terminal located at Park Row over the Brooklyn Bridge (this service predated the opening of the East River Tunnels to Penn Station). Nevertheless the Interstate Commerce Commission ended this service in 1916 when they classified different operating standards between rapid transit trains and regular heavy rail railroads which the LIRR was classified as.
By the late 1930s it was clear that the rest of the line needed to be grade separated. Much of the surrounding area along Atlantic Avenue in Ozone Park and Richmond Hill began their suburban development leading to more traffic along Atlantic Avenue which was plagued by the lines many grade crossings. The City of New York along with the LIRR thus allocated the funds to depress the rest of the line from Morris Park to East New York in a tunnel. Building of the tunnel commenced in 1939 (although plans to build the tunnel date back to 1893) with two of the lines four tracks being pulled out of service and the rapid transit service being discontinued.
In 1942 the tunnel was completed and opened with the two remaining at grade tracks pulled out of service. Around this time Atlantic Avenue was raised over the East New York station via a viaduct that separated the road and the railroad. The elevated trestle from East New York to Atkins Avenue was also demolished as it had been included in the new tunnel to Jamaica. Only one station was included in the new tunnel: Woodhaven Junction, where the Atlantic Branch crossed under the Rockaway Beach Branch. An interlocking and track connection was built just west of the Woodhaven Junction station to connect the two lines, but these closed after the abandonment of the Rockaway Beach Branch between 1955 and 1962.
Jamaica to Valley Stream
The portion east of Jamaica was opened by the South Side Railroad of Long Island on October 28, 1867, as part of its initial line from Jamaica to Babylon. With the consolidation of the South Side into the Long Island Rail Road system in 1876, all passenger trains were rerouted to use the LIRR main line from Berlin Junction (west of Jamaica) to Rockaway Junction and the LIRR's Rockaway Branch to Springfield Junction, where it crossed the South Side. This change took effect Sunday, June 25, 1876, and resulted in the closure of the South Side's Berlin, Beaver Street (Jamaica), Locust Avenue, and Springfield stations. This formed the current configuration, where the Montauk Branch follows this route, mostly ex-South Side, and the Atlantic Branch (then the Old Southern Road) uses the old South Side to Springfield Junction.
Effective May 17, 1906, when an electrified third track opened alongside the Montauk Division from Springfield Junction to Valley Stream, the Old Southern Road and this new track became part of the Atlantic Division.
Only former stations that existed after the ca. 1905 improvement and electrification are listed in this table.
Full list, including all former stations
earlier Flatbush Avenue
|July 2, 1877||Present|
|Vanderbilt Avenue||August 13, 1877|
|Washington Avenue||by late 1878|
|Grand Avenue||August 13, 1877||by late 1878|
also called Franklin Avenue
|east of Franklin Avenue||by mid-1842|
|1.57||Nostrand Avenue||August 13, 1877||Present|
|Brooklyn Avenue||August 13, 1877|
|Albany Avenue||August 13, 1877|
|2.27||Troy Avenue||August 13, 1877
|by late 1878
|Schenectady Avenue||by late 1878|
|2.56||Utica Avenue||August 13, 1877
|by late 1878
|Rochester Avenue||August 13, 1877|
|Ralph Avenue||August 13, 1877|
|Hopkinson Avenue||August 13, 1877||by late 1878|
|Rockaway Avenue||by late 1878|
|Stone Avenue||August 13, 1877||by late 1878|
|3.97||East New York
earlier Manhattan Beach Railroad Crossing
|by late 1878||Present|
earlier East New York
|Alabama Avenue||by early 1843||1905|
|Wyckoff Avenue||Wyona Street||by late 1878|
|Van Siclen Avenue||by late 1878|
|4.8 or 4.9||Warwick Street||August 29, 1905||November 1, 1939|
earlier Van Wicklens
|by late 1878|
|5.32||Norwood Avenue||by mid-1890||November 5, 1915|
|Cypress Avenue||Crescent Street||by mid-1853|
|Cypress Hills||west of Autumn Avenue||by early 1849|
earlier Railroad Avenue
|April 28, 1905||November 1, 1939|
|Adamsville||west of Eldert Lane||June 1872||November 1, 1876|
|Unionville||west of 80th Street|
|6.3||Union Course||east of 80th Street||by late 1842||November 1, 1939|
|east of 87th Street||by mid-1848||November 1, 1939|
|Trotting Course Lane||94th Street|
|7.19||Woodhaven Junction||west of 100th Street||by mid-1890||1977|
|Chester Park||104th Street|
|7.79||Clarenceville||111th Street||by late 1874||November 1, 1939|
|Lefferts Avenue||west of 119th Street||by 1867||June 1870|
|8.07||Morris Park||west of 120th Street||by mid-1890||November 1, 1939|
|Morris Grove||west of 124th Street||1878||1886|
|Boland's Landing||126th Street||1889|
|Berlin||west of 130th Street|
originally Van Wyck Avenue, then Berlin
|Van Wyck Avenue||June 1869||November 1, 1939|
also called Jamaica—Beaver Street
|east of Jamaica Station||October 28, 1867||1913|
|South Street||South Road||November 15, 1917||June 1922|
earlier Power Place
|near Linden Boulevard||1906||1959|
earlier Locust Avenue
|Farmer's Boulevard & Bedell Street||June 1869||Present|
|Springfield||Springfield Boulevard||October 28, 1867||1906|
earlier Central Avenue
|224th Street||April 1907||Present|
earlier Foster's Meadow
|Francis Lewis Boulevard & Sunrise Highway||Present|
|15.7||Valley Stream||Franklin Avenue & Sunrise Highway||June 1869||Present|
- Lower Manhattan-Jamaica/JFK Transportation Project - Proposal to use the LIRR Atlantic Branch in a new direct JFK connection to Lower Manhattan
- Governor Tours Atlantic Avenue Terminal Improvement Project: $200 Million Project Underway at Terminal Complex in Brooklyn, press release dated July 11, 2002
- Joseph Hutchins Colton, Map of the city of Brooklyn, 1849, NYPL Digital Image ID: 434722
- Vincent F. Seyfried, The Long Island Rail Road: A Comprehensive History, Part One: South Side R.R. of L.I., © 1961
- "Railroad Changes". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY). June 27, 1876. p. 2.
- "Without Railroad Accommodation". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY). February 22, 1881. p. 4.
- Employee timetable, May 17, 1906
- Employee timetable, May 17, 1906
- "Steam Motors". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY). August 12, 1877. p. 4.
- Employee timetable, November 4, 1878
- Employee timetable, June 28, 1899
- "Long Island Railroad". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY). May 13, 1842. p. 2.
- Employee timetable, June 24, 1890
- "Long Island Railroad Co". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY). March 4, 1843. p. 3.
- "Instructive". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY). November 22, 1878. p. 4.
- Employee timetable, September 17, 1899
- "Shocking". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY). November 14, 1878. p. 4.
- Employee timetable, September 20, 1905
- LIRR Notice for November 1, 1939
- "Long Island Railroad Station History". Aug 12, 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-17.
- "Travel". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY). June 16, 1853. p. 4.
- "The New Cemetery of the Cypress Hills". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY). April 9, 1849. p. 2.
- Timetable, November 8, 1874
- "Races, Union Course--Long Island Railroad". Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, NY). October 3, 1842. p. 3.
- Timetable, May 1, 1848
- Street Name Changes in Queens, New York (SteveMorse.org)
Media related to Atlantic Branch (Long Island Rail Road) at Wikimedia Commons