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For the British Columbia politician, see Arthur Ash.
Arthur Ashe
Arthur Ashe.jpg
Arthur Ashe, winning the 1975 ABN World Tennis Tournament in Rotterdam
Country  United States
Residence Richmond, Virginia, U.S.
Born (1943-07-10)July 10, 1943
Richmond, Virginia, U.S.
Died February 6, 1993(1993-02-06) (aged 49)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Height 6 ft 2 in (1.88 m)
Turned pro 1970
Retired 1980
Plays Right-handed (one-handed backhand)
Prize money $1,584,909 (according to the ATP)
Int. Tennis HOF 1985 (member page)
Singles
Career record 818–260[a]
Career titles 35 (Grand Prix, WCT and Grand Slam)
Highest ranking No. 1 (1968, Harry Hopman)[2]
No. 2 (May 12, 1976) by ATP
Grand Slam Singles results
Australian Open W (1970)
French Open QF (1970, 1971)
Wimbledon W (1975)
US Open W (1968)
Other tournaments
Tour Finals F (1978)
WCT Finals W (1975)
Doubles
Career record 323–176[a]
Career titles 18 (14 Grand Prix and WCT titles)
Highest ranking No. 15 (August 30, 1977)
Grand Slam Doubles results
Australian Open W (1977)
French Open W (1971)
Wimbledon F (1971)
US Open F (1968)
Team competitions
Davis Cup W (1963, 1968, 1969, 1970)

Arthur Robert Ashe, Jr. (July 10, 1943 – February 6, 1993) was an American World No. 1 professional tennis player. He won three Grand Slam titles, ranking him among the best tennis players from the United States.

Ashe, an African American, was the first black player selected to the United States Davis Cup team and the only black man ever to win the singles title at Wimbledon, the US Open, or the Australian Open. He retired in 1980. He was ranked World No. 1 by Harry Hopman in 1968 and by Lance Tingay of The Daily Telegraph and World Tennis Magazine in 1975.[2][3] In the ATP computer rankings, he peaked at No. 2 in May 1976.[4]

In the early 1980s, Ashe is believed to have contracted HIV from a blood transfusion he received during heart bypass surgery. Ashe publicly announced his illness in April 1992 and began working to educate others about HIV and AIDS. He founded the Arthur Ashe Foundation for the Defeat of AIDS and the Arthur Ashe Institute for Urban Health before his death from AIDS-related pneumonia on February 6, 1993.

On June 20, 1993, Ashe was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by then United States President Bill Clinton.

Early life[edit]

Ashe was born in Richmond, Virginia, to Arthur Ashe Sr. and Mattie Cordell Cunningham Ashe. He had a brother, Johnnie, who was five years younger.[5] In March 1950, Ashe's mother Mattie died from complications related to a toxemic pregnancy (now known as pre-eclampsia) at the age of 27.[6] Ashe and his brother were raised by their father who worked as a handyman and was also a salaried Special Policeman for Richmond's recreation department.[5]

Ashe senior was a caring father and strict disciplinarian who encouraged Arthur to excel in both school and in sports but forbade him to play football, a popular game for many black children, due to his son's slight build, something that meant Arthur's childhood nicknames were "Skinny" or "Bones". The Ashes' lived in the caretaker's cottage in the grounds of 18-acre Brookfield park, Richmond's largest blacks-only public playground, which had basketball courts, four tennis courts, a pool and three baseball diamonds. Ashe started playing tennis aged 7 and began practicing on the courts where his natural talent was spotted by Virginia Union University student and part-time Brookfield tennis instructor, Ron Charity who as the best black tennis player in Richmond at the time, began to teach Ashe the basic strokes and encouraged him to enter local tournaments.

Ashe attended Maggie L. Walker High School where he continued to practice tennis. Ron Charity brought him to the attention of Robert Walter Johnson, a physician, and coach of Althea Gibson, who founded and funded the Junior Development Program of the American Tennis Association (ATA). Ashe was coached and mentored by Johnson at his tennis summer camp home in Lynchburg, Virginia from 1953 when Ashe was aged 10, until 1960. Johnson helped fine-tune Ashe's game and taught him the importance of racial socialization through sportsmanship, etiquette and the composure that would later become an Ashe hallmark. He was told to return every ball that landed within two inches of a line and never to argue with an umpire's decision. In 1958, Ashe became the first African-American to play in the Maryland boys' championships. It was also his first integrated tennis competition. In 1960, precluded from playing Caucasian youths in segregated Richmond during the school year and unable to use the city's indoor courts which were closed to black players, Ashe accepted an offer from Richard Hudlin, a St. Louis teacher, tennis coach and friend of Dr. Johnson, to move to St. Louis and spend his senior year attending Sumner High School[7] where he could compete more freely. Ashe lived with Hudlin and his family for the year, during which time Hudlin coached and encouraged him to develop the serve-and-volley game that Ashe's, now stronger, physique allowed. In 1961, after lobbying by Dr. Johnson, Ashe was allowed to compete in the previously segregated U.S. Interscholastic tournament and won it for the school.

In December 1960, and again in 1963, Ashe featured in Sports Illustrated, appearing in their Faces in the Crowd segment.[8] He became the first African-American to win the National Junior Indoor tennis title and was awarded a tennis scholarship to the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) in 1963. During his time at UCLA, he was coached by J.D. Morgan and practiced regularly with his sporting idol, Pancho Gonzales, who lived nearby and helped hone his game. Ashe was also a member of the ROTC which required him to join active military service after graduation in exchange for money for tuition. After graduating with a bachelor's degree in business administration, Ashe joined the United States Army on August 4, 1966. Ashe completed his basic training in Washington and was later commissioned as a second lieutenant in the Adjutant General Corps. He was assigned to the United States Military Academy at West Point where he worked as a data processor. During his time at West Point, Ashe headed the academy's tennis program. He was promoted to 1st lieutenant on February 23, 1968 and was discharged from the Army in 1969.[9][10]

Career[edit]

In 1963 Ashe became the first black player ever selected for the United States Davis Cup team. In 1965, ranked the number 3 player in the United States, Ashe won both the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) singles title and the doubles title (with Ian Crookenden of New Zealand)), helping UCLA win the team NCAA tennis championship.

In 1966 and 1967, Ashe reached the final of the Australian Open but lost on both occasions to Roy Emerson.

1968 was another groundbreaking year for Ashe. He won the United States Amateur Championships against Davis Cup Teammate Bob Lutz, and the first US Open of the open era, becoming the first black male to capture the title and the only player to have won both the amateur and open national championships in the same year.[11] In order to maintain Davis Cup eligibility and have time away from army duty for important tournaments, Ashe was required to maintain his amateur status. Because of this, he could not accept the $14,000 first-prize money, which was instead given to runner-up Tom Okker,[12] while Ashe received just $20 daily expenses for his historic triumph. His ability to compete in the championship (and avoid the Vietnam war) arose from his brother Johnnie's decision to serve an additional tour in Vietnam in Arthur's place.[13] In December 1968, Ashe helped the U.S team become Davis Cup champions after victory in the final in Adelaide against defending champions, Australia. His only loss in the 12 Davis Cup tournament singles matches he played that year, was in the last dead rubber game after the U.S team had already clinched victory. The season closed with Ashe the winner of 10 of 22 tournaments with a 72-10 win-loss match record.

In September, 1969, the U.S Davis Cup team retained the cup, beating Romania in the final challenge round, with Ashe winning both his singles matches. The same year, Ashe applied for a visa to play in the South African Open but was denied the visa by the South African government who enforced a strict apartheid policy of racial segregation. He continued to apply for visas in the following years and the country continued to deny him one. In protest, he used this example of discrimination to campaign for U.S. sanctions against South Africa and the expulsion of the nation from the International Lawn Tennis Federation (ILTF) but, in defense of the individual South African players, refused the call from activists to forfeit matches against them.

In January 1970, Ashe won his second Grand Slam singles title at the Australian Open. With the competition somewhat depleted by the absence of some world-class National Tennis League (NTL) professional players barred by their league from entering because the financial guarantees were deemed too low, Ashe defeated Dick Crealy in straight sets in the final to become the first non-Australian to win the title since 1959. In September 1970, shortly after helping the U.S Davis cup team defeat West Germany in the challenge round to win their third consecutive Davis Cup, Ashe signed a five-year contract with Lamar Hunt's World Championship Tennis.[14]

In March 1971, Ashe reached the final of the Australian Open again but lost in straight sets to Ken Rosewall. In June that year, Ashe won the French Open doubles with partner Marty Riessen.

In 1972, due to a dispute between the ILTF and the WCT, Ashe, as one of the 32 contracted WCT players, was barred from taking part in any ILTF Grand Prix tennis circuit tournaments from January to July. This ban meant Ashe was unable to play at the French Open and Wimbledon Grand Slam tournaments. In September, Ashe reached the final of the US Open for the second time. After leading his opponent, Ilie Năstase by 2 sets to 1 and with a break point to take a 4-1 lead in the fourth set, he eventually lost in five sets. The loss from such a winning position was the biggest disappointment of Ashe's professional tennis career. At the post-match award ceremony, irritated by some of Năstase's on-court antics during the game, Ashe praised Năstase as a tough opponent and 'colourful' player, then suggested, "...and when he brushes up on some of his court manners, he is going to be even better". At this tournament, concerned that men's tennis professionals were not receiving winnings commensurate with the sport's growing popularity and to protect players from promoters and associations, Ashe supported the founding of the Association of Tennis Professionals. He went on to become its elected president in 1974.

In June 1973, as a result of an ATP boycott, Ashe was one of 13 seeded players and 81 players in total who withdrew from the Wimbledon tournament to much public criticism. The catalyst for the boycott was that Yugoslavian ATP member Niki Pilić had been suspended for nine months by his tennis federation after allegedly refusing to represent them in a Davis Cup tie against New Zealand in May, something Pilić denied. The ban was upheld by the ILTF though they reduced it to just one month. The ATP contested the ban but lost a lawsuit to force Pilić's participation at Wimbledon during the ban period. As a member of the ATP board, Ashe voted to boycott the tournament, a vote that was only narrowly passed when ATP chairman, Cliff Drysdale abstained. The reason for the boycott was to support Pilić as an ATP member, but the importance was that it proved the solidarity of the fledgling ATP, and showed the tennis associations that professional players could no longer be dictated to.[15]

In November 1973, with the South African government seeking to end their Olympic ban and re-join the Olympic movement, Ashe was finally granted a visa to enter the country for the first time to play in the South African Open. He lost in the final to Jimmy Connors, but won the doubles with partner Tom Okker. Despite boycotts against South African sport, Ashe believed that his presence could help break down stereotypes and that by competing and winning the tournament, it would stand as an example of the result of integration, and help bring about change in apartheid South Africa. He reached the singles final again in 1974, losing in straight sets to Connors for the second consecutive year. Later, in 1977, Ashe addressed a small crowd of boycott supporters at the U.S Open and admitted that he had been wrong to participate in South Africa and once again supported the boycott of South African players after he had tried to purchase tickets for some young Africans for a tennis match in South Africa, and was told to use an "Africans only" counter.[16] In the media, Ashe called for South Africa to be expelled from the professional tennis circuit and Davis Cup competition.

In May 1975, Ashe beat Bjorn Borg to win the season-ending championship WCT Finals in Dallas, Texas.

On July 5, 1975 in the first all-American Wimbledon final since 1947, Ashe, seeded sixth and just a few days short of his 32nd birthday, won Wimbledon at his ninth attempt, defeating the strong favourite and defending champion, Jimmy Connors. Ashe had never beaten Connors in any of their previous encounters and Connors had not dropped a set in any of the six earlier rounds, but Ashe played an almost perfect game of tactical tennis to win in four sets.[17][18] In the lead-up to the final, the two player's relationship was already strained. Connors was suing the ATP, with Ashe as its president, for alleged restraint of trade after opposition from the ATP and French officials meant he was refused entry to the 1974 French Open as a contracted member of World Team Tennis (WTT). Just two days before the start of the Wimbledon tournament, it had been announced that Connors was now suing Ashe for $5 million for comments in a letter Ashe had written to ATP members in his role as president, criticizing Connors insistence that Davis Cup captain Dennis Ralston should be fired and Connors "unpatriotic" boycott of the competition which had started after Ralston left him out of the team against the West Indies in Jamaica in March 1972. On final day, Ashe pointedly and symbolically wore his U.S.A. Davis Cup warm-up jacket when walking out onto Centre Court and during the award ceremony while receiving the trophy and winners cheque for GBP £10,000 (1975 equivalent USD $23,000). Soon after the final, Connors dropped the libel suit.

Ashe played for a few more years and won the Australian Open doubles with Tony Roche in January 1977, but a left foot heel injury requiring surgery a month later and subsequent long-term rehabilitation saw his world ranking drop to a lowly 257th before a remarkable comeback saw him rise back to 14th in the world again at the age of 35. However, after undergoing heart surgery in December 1979, Ashe officially retired in April 1980, aged 36. His career record was 818 wins, 260 losses and 51 titles.

President Reagan greets Arthur Ashe (left) in 1982

Ashe remains the only black man to win the singles title at Wimbledon, the US Open, or Australian Open. He is one of only two men of black African ancestry to win any Grand Slam singles title, the other being France's Yannick Noah, who won the French Open in 1983. He also led the United States to victory for three consecutive years (1968–70) in the Davis Cup.

In his 1979 autobiography, Jack Kramer, the long-time tennis promoter and a world no. 1 player himself in the 1940s, ranked Ashe as one of the 21 best players of all time.[19]

Retirement[edit]

After his retirement, Ashe took on many roles, including writing for Time magazine and The Washington Post, commentating for ABC Sports, founding the National Junior Tennis League, and serving as captain of the U.S. Davis Cup team from 1981-1985. He was elected to the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1985.[20]

In 1988, Ashe published a three-volume book titled A Hard Road to Glory: A History of the African-American Athlete,[21] after working with a team of researchers for nearly six years.[22] Ashe stated that the book was more important than any tennis titles.[23]

Ashe was also an active civil rights supporter. He was a member of a delegation of 31 prominent African-Americans who visited South Africa to observe political change in the country as it approached racial integration. He was arrested on January 11, 1985, for protesting outside the Embassy of South Africa, Washington, D.C. during an anti-apartheid rally. He was arrested again on September 9, 1992, outside the White House for protesting on the recent crackdown on Haitian refugees.

Personal life[edit]

On February 20, 1977, Ashe married Jeanne Moutoussamy, a photographer he met in October 1976 at a United Negro College Fund benefit. Andrew Young, the United States Ambassador to the United Nations, performed the wedding ceremony in the United Nations chapel, New York City.[24] Ashe wore a footcast during the ceremony after undergoing an operation on his injured left foot heel 10 days earlier.

In December 1986, Ashe and Moutoussamy adopted a daughter. She was named Camera after her mother's profession.[25]

In March, 1989, Ashe's father died of a stroke, aged 68.

Health issues[edit]

Ashe promoting heart health after his heart attack.

In July 1979, Ashe suffered a heart attack while holding a tennis clinic in New York. In view of his high level of fitness as an athlete, his condition drew attention to the hereditary aspect of heart disease; Ashe's mother already had cardiovascular disease at the time of her death, aged 27, and his father had suffered a first heart attack, aged 55, and a second just a week before Ashe. Cardiac catheterization revealed one of Ashe's arteries was completely closed, another was 95 percent closed, and a third was closed 50 percent in two places. Ashe underwent a quadruple bypass operation, performed by Dr. John Hutchinson on December 13, 1979.[26] A few months after the operation, Ashe was on the verge of making his return to professional tennis. However, during a family trip in Cairo, Egypt, he developed chest pains while running. Ashe stopped running and returned to see a physician and was accompanied by his close friend Douglas Stein. Stein urged Ashe to return to New York City so he could be close to his cardiologist, his surgeon and top-class medical facilities.[26] In 1983, Ashe underwent a second round of heart surgery to correct the previous bypass surgery.

In September 1988, Ashe was hospitalized after experiencing paralysis in his right arm. After undergoing exploratory brain surgery and a number of tests, doctors discovered that Ashe had toxoplasmosis, a parasitic disease that is commonly found in people infected with HIV. A subsequent test later revealed that Ashe was HIV positive. Ashe and his doctors believed he contracted the virus from blood transfusions he received during his second heart surgery.[27][28] He and his wife decided to keep his illness private for the sake of their daughter, who was then two years old.

In 1992, a friend of Ashe's who worked for USA Today heard that he was ill and called Ashe to confirm the story. Ashe decided to preempt USA Today's plans to publish the story about his illness and, on April 8, 1992, publicly announced he had contracted HIV. Ashe blamed USA Today for forcing him to go public with the news but also stated that he was relieved that he no longer had to lie about his illness. After the announcement, hundreds of readers called or wrote letters to USA Today criticizing their choice to run the story about Ashe's illness which subsequently forced Ashe to publicize his illness.[29]

After Ashe went public with his illness, he began to work to raise awareness about AIDS and advocated teaching sex education and safe sex. He also fielded questions about his own diagnosis and attempted to clear up the misconception that only homosexuals or IV drug users were at risk for contracting AIDS.[27] In September 1992, Ashe suffered a mild heart attack. In a speech to the United Nations General Assembly on World AIDS Day, December 1, 1992, he addressed the growing need for AIDS awareness and increased research funding saying “We want to be able to look back and say to all concerned that we did what we had to do, when we had to do it, and with all the resources required.”

Ashe founded the Arthur Ashe Foundation for the Defeat of AIDS. Two months before his death, he founded the Arthur Ashe Institute for Urban Health to help address issues of inadequate health care delivery and was named Sports Illustrated magazine's Sportsman of the Year. He also spent much of the last years of his life writing his memoir Days of Grace, finishing the manuscript less than a week before his death.

Death[edit]

On February 6, 1993, Ashe died from AIDS-related pneumonia at New York Hospital. His funeral was held at the Arthur Ashe Athletic Center in Richmond, Virginia, on February 10.[28] Then-governor Douglas Wilder, who was a friend of Ashe's, allowed his body to lie in state at the Governor's Mansion in Richmond. More than 5,000 people lined up to walk past the casket. Andrew Young, who had performed the service for Ashe's wedding in 1977, officiated at his funeral. Over 6,000 mourners attended.[30] Ashe requested that he be buried alongside his mother, Mattie, who died in 1950, in Woodland Cemetery in Richmond, Virginia.[31]

On February 12, 1993, a memorial service for Ashe was held at the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine in Manhattan.[32]

Grand Slam singles tournament timeline[edit]

Tournament 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 19771 1978 1979 Career SR Career Win-Loss
Australian Open A A A A A A A F F A A W F A A A A A QF A SF A 1 / 6 26–5
French Open A A A A A A A A A A 4R QF QF A 4R 4R A 4R A 4R 3R 0 / 8 25–8
Wimbledon A A A A 3R 4R 4R A A SF SF 4R 3R A A 3R W 4R A 1R 1R 1 / 12 35–11
US Open 1R 2R 2R 2R 3R 4R SF 3R A W SF QF SF F 3R QF 4R 2R A 4R A 1 / 18 53–17
Win-Loss 0–1 1–1 1–1 1–1 4–2 6–2 8–2 7–2 5–1 11–1 13–3 15–3 15–4 6–1 5–2 9–3 10–1 7–3 3–1 10–4 2–2 N/A 139–41
SR 0 / 1 0 / 1 0 / 1 0 / 1 0 / 2 0 / 2 0 / 2 0 / 2 0 / 1 1 / 2 0 / 3 1 / 4 0 / 4 0 / 1 0 / 2 0 / 3 1 / 2 0 / 3 0 / 1 0 / 4 0 / 2 3 / 44 N/A

1The Australian Open was held twice in 1977, in January and December.
A = did not participate in the tournament
SR = the ratio of the number of Grand Slam singles tournaments won to the number of those tournaments played

Grand Slam finals[edit]

Singles: 7 finals (3 titles, 4 runner-ups)[edit]

Outcome Year Championship Surface Opponent in the final Score in the final
Runner-up 1966 Australian Championships Grass Australia Roy Emerson 4–6, 8–6, 2–6, 3–6
Runner-up 1967 Australian Championships Grass Australia Roy Emerson 4–6, 1–6, 4–6
Winner 1968 US Open Grass Netherlands Tom Okker 14–12, 5–7, 6–3, 3–6, 6–3
Winner 1970 Australian Open Grass Australia Dick Crealy 6–4, 9–7, 6–2
Runner-up 1971 Australian Open Grass Australia Ken Rosewall 1–6, 5–7, 3–6
Runner-up 1972 US Open Grass Romania Ilie Năstase 6–3, 3–6, 7–6(5–1), 4–6, 3–6
Winner 1975 Wimbledon Grass United States Jimmy Connors 6–1, 6–1, 5–7, 6–4

Doubles, 5 finals (2 titles, 3 runner-ups)[edit]

Outcome Year Championship Surface Partner Opponents in the final Score in the final
Runner-Up 1968 US Open Grass Spain Andrés Gimeno United States Bob Lutz
United States Stan Smith
11–9, 6–1, 7–5
Runner-Up 1970 French Open Clay United States Charlie Pasarell Romania Ilie Năstase
Romania Ion Ţiriac
6–2, 6–4, 6–3
Winner 1971 French Open Clay United States Marty Riessen United States Tom Gorman
United States Stan Smith
6–8, 4–6, 6–3, 6–4, 11–9
Runner-Up 1971 Wimbledon Grass United States Dennis Ralston Australia Roy Emerson
Australia Rod Laver
4–6, 9–7, 6–8, 6–4, 6–4
Winner 1977 (Jan) Australian Open Grass Australia Tony Roche United States Charlie Pasarell
United States Erik Van Dillen
6–4, 6–4

Grand Slam, Grand Prix and WCT Tour titles[edit]

Singles (33)[edit]

No. Date Championship Surface Opponent Score
1. August 1, 1968 U.S. Amateur Championships, Boston, USA Grass United States Robert Lutz 4–6, 6–3, 8–10, 6–0, 6–4
2. August 29, 1968 US Open, New York City, USA Grass Netherlands Tom Okker 14–12, 5–7, 6–3, 3–6, 6–3
3. January 19, 1970 Australian Open, Melbourne, Australia Grass Australia Dick Crealy 6–4, 9–7, 6–2
4. September 28, 1970 Berkeley, California Hard United States Cliff Richey 6–4, 6–2, 6–4
5. November 8, 1970 Paris, France Carpet United States Marty Riessen 7–6, 6–4, 6–3
6. April 18, 1971 Charlotte, USA Hard United States Stan Smith 6–3, 6–3
7. November 1, 1971 Stockholm, Sweden Hard Czechoslovakia Jan Kodeš 6–1, 3–6, 6–2, 1–6, 6–4
8. November 8, 1971 Paris, France Clay United States Marty Riessen 7–6, 6–4, 6–3
9. July 29, 1972 Louisville WCT Clay United Kingdom Mark Cox 6–4, 6–4
10. September 11, 1972 Montreal WCT Hard Australia Roy Emerson 7–5, 4–6, 6–2, 6–3
11. November 18, 1972 Rotterdam WCT Carpet Netherlands Tom Okker 3–6, 6–2, 6–1
12. November 26, 1972 Rome WCT Carpet United States Bob Lutz 6–2, 3–6, 6–3, 3–6, 7–6
13. February 26, 1973 Chicago WCT Carpet United Kingdom Roger Taylor 3–6, 7–6(11–9), 7–6(7–2)
14. July 23, 1973 Washington Clay Netherlands Tom Okker 6–4, 6–2
15. February 11, 1974 Bologna WCT Carpet United Kingdom Mark Cox 6–4, 7–5
16. March 3, 1974 Barcelona WCT Carpet Sweden Björn Borg 6–4, 3–6, 6–3
17. November 4, 1974 Stockholm Hard Netherlands Tom Okker 6–2, 6–2
18. February 17, 1975 Barcelona WCT Carpet Sweden Björn Borg 7–6, 6–3
19. February 24, 1975 Rotterdam WTT Carpet Netherlands Tom Okker 3–6, 6–2, 6–4
20. March 10, 1975 Munich WCT Carpet Sweden Björn Borg 6–4, 7–6
21. April 21, 1975 Stockholm WCT Carpet Netherlands Tom Okker 6–4, 6-2
22. May 7, 1975 Dallas WCT Finals Carpet Sweden Björn Borg 3–6, 6–4, 6–4, 6–0
23. June 23, 1975 Wimbledon Grass United States Jimmy Connors 6–1, 6–1, 5–7, 6–4
24. September 15, 1975 Pacific Southwest, Los Angeles Hard United States Roscoe Tanner 3–6, 7–5, 6–3
25. September 22, 1975 San Francisco Hard Argentina Guillermo Vilas 6–0, 7–6(7–4)
26. January 7, 1976 Columbus WCT Carpet Rhodesia Andrew Pattison 3–6, 6–3, 7–6(7–4)
27. January 12, 1976 Indianapolis WCT Hard United States Vitas Gerulaitis 6–2, 6–7, 6–4
28. February 4, 1976 Richmond WCT Hard United States Brian Gottfried 6–2, 6–4
29. February 17, 1976 Rome WCT Hard United States Bob Lutz 6–2, 0–6, 6–3
30. February 23, 1976 Rotterdam WTT Hard United States Bob Lutz 6–3, 6–3
31. April 17, 1978 San Jose Carpet South Africa Bernard Mitton 6–7, 6–1, 6–2
32. August 7, 1978 Columbus Clay United States Bob Lutz 6–3, 6–4
33. September 18, 1978 Los Angeles Carpet United States Brian Gottfried 6–2, 6–4

Honors[edit]

The Arthur Ashe Stadium at the 2007 US Open
The Arthur Ashe Student Health and Wellness Center, on the campus of UCLA

Video[edit]

  • Wimbledon 1975 Final: Ashe vs. Connors Standing Room Only, DVD Release Date: October 30, 2007, Run Time: 120 minutes, ASIN: B000V02CTQ.

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Aurthur Ashe bio at ESPN". Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  2. ^ a b "American Netters Rated 10-1 Favorites", Toledo Blade, 22nd December 1968.
  3. ^ "Ashe Ranked 1", The Lewiston Daily Sun, December 9, 1975.
  4. ^ ATP profile of Arthur Ashe
  5. ^ a b Moore, Kenny (1992-12-21). "The Eternal Example". sportsillustrated.cnn.com. p. 2. Retrieved 3 December 2012. 
  6. ^ Ashe, Arthur; Rampersad, Arnold (1994). Days of Grace. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 58. ISBN 0-345-38681-7. 
  7. ^ "TRAVEL ADVISORY; Black History in St. Louis", The New York Times, May 10, 1992. Accessed December 11, 2007. "Sumner High School, the first school west of the Mississippi for blacks, established in 1875 (among graduates are Grace Bumbry, Arthur Ashe, and Tina Turner)..."
  8. ^ Arthur Ashe picture
  9. ^ Steins, Richard (2005). Arthur Ashe: A Biography. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 22–23. ISBN 0-313-33299-1. 
  10. ^ Army Register, 1969. Vol. 2. pg. 32.
  11. ^ "Arthur Robert Ashe, Jr.". TennisFame.com. Retrieved September 9, 2009. [dead link]
  12. ^ Collins, Bud (2010). The Bud Collins History of Tennis (2nd ed.). [New York]: New Chapter Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-0942257700. 
  13. ^ "30 for 30 Shorts: ‘Arthur & Johnnie’". Grantland. August 28, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Ashe signs 5-year professional contract". The Telegraph-Herald. Sep 16, 1970. 
  15. ^ Kamakshi Tandon (July 1, 2013). "It all changed in 1973 for the ATP". espn.go.com. ESPN. 
  16. ^ Richard E. Lapchick. "A legacy of change and hope". ESPN. 
  17. ^ "Ashe Wins Wimbledon Crown". Herald-Journal. AP. July 6, 1975. 
  18. ^ Fred Tupper (July 6, 1975). "Ashe Thrashes Connors For Wimbledon Title". Sarasota Herald-Tribune (N.Y. Times). 
  19. ^ Kramer considered the best ever to have been either Don Budge (for consistent play) or Ellsworth Vines (at the height of his game). The next four best were, chronologically, Bill Tilden, Fred Perry, [[Ronald Thorpe]], and Pancho Gonzales. After these six came the "second echelon" of Rod Laver, Lew Hoad, Ken Rosewall, Gottfried von Cramm, Ted Schroeder, Jack Crawford, Pancho Segura, Frank Sedgman, Tony Trabert, John Newcombe, Arthur Ashe, Stan Smith, Björn Borg, and Jimmy Connors. Kramer felt unable to rank Henri Cochet and René Lacoste accurately but felt they were among the very best.
  20. ^ "Arthur Ashe Biography". CMG WorldWide. Retrieved September 9, 2009. 
  21. ^ Ashe, Jr., Arthur R. (1988-11-13). "Views of Sport; Taking the Hard Road with Black Athletes". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  22. ^ Kupferberg, Herbert (1989-03-12). "Their Hard Road to Glory". Parade. p. 12. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  23. ^ Michael O'Donnell (August 29, 2014). "Book Review: 'Arthur Ashe' by Eric Allen Hall". online.wsj.com. The Wall Street Journal. 
  24. ^ Ashe, Arthur (August 1981). "My Introduction To Sex, Love and Marriage". Ebony (Johnson Publishing Company) 36 (10): 86, 90. ISSN 0012-9011.  Young served as a minister in the United Church of Christ.
  25. ^ Steins, Richard (2005). Arthur Ashe: A Biography. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 66. ISBN 0-313-33299-1. 
  26. ^ a b Rampersad, Arnold; Arthur Ashe (1993). Days of Grace: A Memoir. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 35. ISBN 0-679-42396-6. 
  27. ^ a b Sankaran, Gopal; Volkwein-Caplan, Karin A. E.; Bonsall, Dale R. (1999). HIV/Aids in Sport: Impact, Issues, and Challenges. Human Kinetics. p. 58. ISBN 0-880-11749-4. 
  28. ^ a b Finn, Robin (1993-02-08). "Arthur Ashe, Tennis Star, Is Dead at 49". nytimes.com. Retrieved 4 December 2012. 
  29. ^ Sankaran, Gopal; Volkwein-Caplan, Karin A. E.; Bonsall, Dale R. (1999). HIV/Aids in Sport: Impact, Issues, and Challenges. Human Kinetics. p. 59. ISBN 0-880-11749-4. 
  30. ^ "Friends and Fans Say Farewell to Arthur Ashe". Jet (Johnson Publishing Company) 83 (18): 12–18. 1993-03-01. ISSN 0021-5996. 
  31. ^ Macenka, Joe (1995-02-04). "Richmond still searching for way to honor Ashe". The Free Lance-Star. p. B1. Retrieved 4 December 2012. 
  32. ^ Goldman, John J. (1993-02-13). "Thousands Pay Tribute to Ashe : Memorial service: Late tennis champion is honored by friends, politicians and others in New York.". latimes.com. Retrieved 4 December 2012. 
  33. ^ Ashe induction at Virginia Sports Hall of Fame
  34. ^ "ITA Men's Hall of Fame". Intercollegiate Tennis Association. Retrieved September 9, 2009. 
  35. ^ "Arthur Ashe Biography". Encyclopedia of World Biography. 
  36. ^ http://www.emmyonline.tv/files/Bryan_Polivka.pdf
  37. ^ "Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients". senate.gov. Retrieved 4 December 2012. 
  38. ^ http://www.jeffersonawards.org/pastwinners/national
  39. ^ Johnson, Nuala C. (2005). "Locating Memory: Tracing the Trajectories of Remembrance". Historical Geography 33: 165–179. Retrieved 6 April 2012. 
  40. ^ Asante, Molefi Kete (2002). 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books. p. 400. ISBN 1-57392-963-8. Retrieved September 9, 2009. 
  41. ^ "40 Greatest players of the TENNIS Era (29–32)". TENNIS Magazine. Retrieved September 9, 2009. 

External links[edit]

Awards and achievements
Preceded by
None
Player of the Year
1975
Succeeded by
Sweden Björn Borg
Preceded by
United States Muhammad Ali
BBC Overseas Sports Personality of the Year
1975
Succeeded by
Romania Nadia Comăneci

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Ashe — Please support Wikipedia.
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219996 videos foundNext > 

Wimbledon final 1975 14.mp4

Jimmy Connors Vs Arthur Ashe.

Arthur Ashe's final message - just released to the public

Arthur Ashe, beloved tennis champion and outspoken AIDS awareness activist, passed away on February 6, 1993. That very day, he was slated to participate in T...

Ilie Nastase and Arthur Ashe

1972 U.S. Open final, Ilie Nastase d. Arthur Ashe 3-6, 6-3, 6-7 (1-5), 6-4, 6-3. These are highlights from sets 2, 3 and 4. Jack Kramer and Bud Collins comme...

Semifinal Laver Arthur Ashe - vs Wimbledon - Rod 1969

VISIT MY TENNIS WEBSITE, ALL TENNIS FULL MATCHES ALL 2013 TOURNAMENTS.

Arthur Ashe vs McEnroe Final - Grand Prix Masters 1978

Final Grand Prix Masters 1978 - Arthur Ashe vs John McEnroe Madison Square Garden Arthur Ashe : McEnroe - 3/6 1/6 Solomon - 6/1 6/4 Connors - Default Gottfri...

ARTHUR ASHE great backhand lesson

arthur shows how to hit an awesome one handed backhand.

Arthur Ashe Kids' Day 2014: Performance Challenge

Serena Williams, Andy Murray, Victoria Azarenka and Jack Sock participate in the 19th Annual Arthur Ashe Kids' Day, taking on Xerox Performance Challenge.

Tribute to Arthur Ashe

Tribute to Arthur Ashe written & produced by Sean Pamphilon for USA Sports.

Michael Sam Arthur Ashe Award ESPY 2014

First clip. The back story of Michael Sam. The road to today.

Arthur Ashe Tribute

Run Athletics pays tribute to the great Arthur Ashe, a singular figure who helped change the social climate of America. He was more than an athelete to the w...

219996 videos foundNext > 

632 news items

Richmond Times-Dispatch

Richmond Times-Dispatch
Mon, 27 Oct 2014 17:38:38 -0700

21, 1977: Arthur Ashe and photographer Jeanne Marie Moutoussamy were married in New York yesterday by Un.N. Ambassador Andrew Young. The groom's brother, Marine Warrant Officer John Ashe, was best man. The tennis star arrived for the ceremony ...

Bacon's Rebellion

Bacon's Rebellion
Fri, 10 Oct 2014 06:27:47 -0700

Arthur Ashe is one of the finest athletes Virginia ever produced and is well known for his work in social and social justice. There have been been many books written about him, including his autobiography, but here's one of the latest, written by a ...

The Times-Picayune - NOLA.com

The Times-Picayune - NOLA.com
Fri, 03 Oct 2014 06:09:47 -0700

Romalice Davis,10, practices multiplication while Dorrian Dennis, 11, works with special education math teacher Meg Troha on median at Arthur Ashe Charter School on Friday, April 25, 2014. Arthur Ashe's "blended learning" program is nationally praised, ...

Southern Maryland News Net

Southern Maryland News Net
Sat, 04 Oct 2014 11:33:45 -0700

Arthur Ashe Arthur Eugene Ashe, 50 of Clements, MD passed away on October 2, 2014 at his home. He was born on January 21, 1964, the son of Willard Rodman Ashe and Doris Lee Umphlett Ashe. Arthur was preceded in death by his father Willard Ashe ...

Tennis Magazine

Tennis Magazine
Fri, 31 Oct 2014 11:22:30 -0700

I copied, without even thinking about it, Boris Becker's deep knee bend and Goran Ivanisevic's very simple, very easy, just-throw-it-up-and-hit-it technique. And I read an article by Arthur Ashe in Tennis Magazine where he said the best way to extend ...
 
Valley News Live
Wed, 29 Oct 2014 10:36:57 -0700

It takes place at the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center in Arthur Ashe Stadium, Flushing Meadows, Queens, New York. It is the only Grand Slam Tennis championship held in North America. August 31, 2015-September 13, 2015 - The U.S. Open ...

Tennis Magazine

Tennis Magazine
Wed, 29 Oct 2014 15:07:30 -0700

Ginepri has played in front of 23,000 people on Arthur Ashe Stadium, and on show courts all over the world, but the third set of his comeback effort here takes place in front of fewer than two dozen spectators, most of them organizers and volunteers ...
 
Wimbledon
Fri, 31 Oct 2014 05:45:00 -0700

The seventh seed, and former champion, Arthur Ashe fell to little known Chris Kachel in 1979, the same year that the new star of tennis, enfant terrible of the British media and future legend John McEnroe, seeded second, was dumped out in three ...
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