Aromatic amino acids (AAA) are amino acids that include an aromatic ring.
- Among 20 standard amino acids:
Phenylalanine → tyrosine → L-DOPA → (dopamine) → (epinephrine) → (norepinephrine)
Tryptophan → 5-hydroxytryptophan → (serotonin)
Histidine → (histamine)
Phenylalanine → tyrosine → thyroxine
Phenylalanine, histidine, and tryptophan are essential amino acids for animals. Since they are not synthesized in the human body, they must be derived from the diet. Tyrosine is semi-essential; it can be synthesized, but only from phenylalanine. A lack of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, used in tyrosine synthesis, causes phenylketonuria, and concurrently renders tyrosine an essential amino acid.
All plants and micro-organisms must synthesize their aromatic amino acids through the shikimate pathway in order to make proteins, unlike animals, which obtain them through their diet. Because of the energy intensive nature of amino acid biosynthesis, animals have lost these costly metabolic pathways, since they can obtain aromatic amino acids by ingesting other organisms. Herbicides and antibiotics take advantage of this by inhibiting enzymes involved in aromatic acid synthesis, thereby rendering them toxic to plants and micro-organisms but not animals.
Texas A&M University
Texas A&M University
Thu, 11 Dec 2014 13:33:45 -0800
The research team focused on aromatic amino acids (AAAs) because their metabolites are involved in many of the more than 2,400 distinct reactions expressed in the microbiota as a whole. Next steps for the team include identifying microbiota metabolites ...
Fri, 12 Dec 2014 06:26:25 -0800
Thus, elevated BMI exerts of causal metabolic signature on numerous metabolic pathways including branched-chain and aromatic amino acids, sex-hormone balance, chronic inflammation and liver function, in addition to the well-known effects on glucose ...
Mon, 15 Dec 2014 06:03:45 -0800
The research team focused on aromatic amino acids (AAAs) because their metabolites are involved in many of the more than 2,400 distinct reactions expressed in the microbiota as a whole. "In addition, we studied AAA-derived metabolites because AAAs can ...
Tue, 12 Mar 2013 06:36:51 -0700
"It's the aromatic amino acids that make it a wire," says lead author Derek Lovley of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Lovley and his colleagues removed the pivotal amino acids from the pili and replaced them with smaller, non-aromatic amino ...
Wed, 27 Mar 2013 10:22:29 -0700
A team of researchers in the US claims to have found clear evidence of a microbe that conducts electricity along protein filaments, just like a metal. By showing that aromatic amino acids are critical to both the electrical and respiratory activities ...
Mon, 09 Aug 2010 12:23:41 -0700
We describe the use of an auto-induction medium containing N-(phosphono-methyl)glycine (glyphosate) as a means for high-level introduction of nonstandard aromatic amino acids into a protein. We illustrate this approach by preparing maltose binding ...
Fri, 01 Aug 2014 00:18:45 -0700
Aromatic amino acids, present in most proteins, fluoresce upon UV excitation. The fluorescence spectrum of a protein gives a clear idea of the conformational state of the protein and its amino acid composition. During the transition of the protein from ...
Fri, 31 Oct 2014 18:32:35 -0700
Glyphosate binds tightly to the manganese atom at the centre of the EPSPS metalloprotein, so tightly that the protein cannot move and do its work making aromatic amino acids. No protein synthesis means there is no metabolic work possible, a quick death ...
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