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Aromatic amino acids (AAA)[1] are amino acids that include an aromatic ring.

Examples include:

PhenylalaninetyrosineL-DOPA → (dopamine) → (epinephrine) → (norepinephrine)

Tryptophan5-hydroxytryptophan → (serotonin)

Histidine → (histamine)

Phenylalaninetyrosinethyroxine

Phenylalanine, histidine, and tryptophan are essential amino acids for animals. Since they are not synthesized in the human body, they must be derived from the diet. Tyrosine is semi-essential; it can be synthesized, but only from phenylalanine. A lack of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, used in tyrosine synthesis, causes phenylketonuria, and concurrently renders tyrosine an essential amino acid.

Animals get aromatic amino acids from diet, but all plants and micro-organisms must synthesize their aromatic amino acids through the metabolically costly shikimate pathway in order to make proteins. Herbicides and antibiotics work by inhibiting enzymes involved in aromatic acid synthesis, thereby rendering them toxic to plants and micro-organisms but not to animals.


All plants and micro-organisms must synthesize their aromatic amino acids through the shikimate pathway in order to make proteins, unlike animals, which obtain them through their diet. Because of the energy intensive nature of amino acid biosynthesis, animals have lost these costly metabolic pathways, since they can obtain aromatic amino acids by ingesting other organisms. Herbicides and antibiotics take advantage of this by inhibiting enzymes involved in aromatic acid synthesis, thereby rendering them toxic to plants and micro-organisms but not animals.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Logan, Carolynn M.; Rice, M. Katherine (1987). Logan's Medical and Scientific Abbreviations. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Company. p. 3. ISBN 0-397-54589-4. 

Further reading[edit]



Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aromatic_amino_acids — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.

88 news items

Endocrinology Advisor

Endocrinology Advisor
Fri, 13 Feb 2015 07:08:41 -0800

The researchers reported that diabetes developed in 227 South Asian men (35%) and 113 European men (14%), with data indicating stronger adverse associations between branched chain and aromatic amino acids and diabetes in South Asian men.
 
Phys.Org
Tue, 12 Mar 2013 02:09:21 -0700

"It's the aromatic amino acids that make it a wire," says lead author Derek Lovley of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Lovley and his colleagues removed the pivotal amino acids from the pili and replaced them with smaller, non-aromatic amino ...
 
physicsworld.com
Wed, 27 Mar 2013 10:22:29 -0700

A team of researchers in the US claims to have found clear evidence of a microbe that conducts electricity along protein filaments, just like a metal. By showing that aromatic amino acids are critical to both the electrical and respiratory activities ...
 
spectroscopyNOW.com
Sun, 06 Jan 2013 18:03:45 -0800

... such as aromatic, hydrophobic, acidic, or basic amino acids can act as antioxidants. Tryptophan, tyrosine, arginine, lysine, cysteine, and histidine, for instance have antioxidant properties. Aromatic amino acids are proton donors to electron ...
 
BioTechniques.com
Mon, 09 Aug 2010 12:23:41 -0700

We describe the use of an auto-induction medium containing N-(phosphono-methyl)glycine (glyphosate) as a means for high-level introduction of nonstandard aromatic amino acids into a protein. We illustrate this approach by preparing maltose binding ...

Boulder Weekly

Boulder Weekly
Thu, 16 Jul 2015 16:45:00 -0700

The chemical kills plants by stopping the production of an enzyme used in the production of aromatic amino acids in the shikimate pathway (a metabolic process). For more than 40 years Monsanto has said glyphosate is safe because humans don't have a ...
 
Nature.com
Tue, 14 Jul 2015 07:01:46 -0700

Westeberhardia has retained almost the complete shikimate pathway, which produces chorismate, the precursor for tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine, but lacks the downstream enzymes necessary for the synthesis of these aromatic amino acids.

Phys.Org

Phys.Org
Wed, 04 Mar 2015 08:30:00 -0800

In a series of papers going back to 2011, Lovley's group provided several lines of experimental evidence that Geobacter pili conduct electrons through the close interaction of aromatic amino acids in the protein filament structure. As Malvankar ...
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