digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:


Applied sciences






















For other uses, see Arduino (disambiguation).
Arduino Logo.svg
Arduino Uno - R3.jpg
"Arduino Uno" Revision 3
Type Single-board microcontroller
Website www.arduino.cc

Arduino is a single-board microcontroller, intended to make building interactive objects or environments more accessible.[1] The hardware consists of an open-source hardware board designed around an 8-bit Atmel AVR microcontroller, or a 32-bit Atmel ARM. Current models feature a USB interface, 6 analog input pins, as well as 14 digital I/O pins that accommodate various extension boards.

Introduced in 2005, the Arduino's designers sought to provide an inexpensive and easy way for hobbyists, students, and professionals to create devices that interact with their environment using sensors and actuators. Common examples for beginner hobbyists include simple robots, thermostats and motion detectors. It comes with a simple integrated development environment (IDE) that runs on regular personal computers and allows users to write programs for Arduino using C or C++.

Arduino boards can be purchased assembled or as do-it-yourself kits. Hardware design information is available for those who would like to assemble an Arduino by hand. It was estimated in mid-2011 that over 300,000 official Arduinos had been commercially produced,[2] and in 2013 that 700,000 official boards were in users' hands.[3]


Arduino started in 2005 as a project for students at the Interaction Design Institute Ivrea in Ivrea, Italy. At that time program students used a "BASIC Stamp" at a cost of $100, considered expensive for students. Massimo Banzi, one of the founders, taught at Ivrea.[4] The name "Arduino" comes from a bar in Ivrea, where some of the founders of the project used to meet. The bar itself was named after Arduino, Margrave of Ivrea and King of Italy from 1002 to 1014.[5]

A hardware thesis was contributed for a wiring design by Colombian student Hernando Barragan. After the Wiring[6] platform was complete, researchers worked to make it lighter, less expensive, and available to the open source community. The school eventually closed down, so these researchers, one of them David Cuartielles, promoted the idea.[4]


An official Arduino Uno with descriptions of the I/O locations
An early Arduino board[7] with an RS-232 serial interface (upper left) and an Atmel ATmega8 microcontroller chip (black, lower right); the 14 digital I/O pins are located at the top and the six analog input pins at the lower right.

An Arduino board consists of an Atmel 8-bit AVR microcontroller with complementary components that facilitate programming and incorporation into other circuits. An important aspect of the Arduino is its standard connectors, which lets users connect the CPU board to a variety of interchangeable add-on modules known as shields. Some shields communicate with the Arduino board directly over various pins, but many shields are individually addressable via an I²C serial bus—so many shields can be stacked and used in parallel. Official Arduinos have used the megaAVR series of chips, specifically the ATmega8, ATmega168, ATmega328, ATmega1280, and ATmega2560. A handful of other processors have been used by Arduino compatibles. Most boards include a 5 volt linear regulator and a 16 MHz crystal oscillator (or ceramic resonator in some variants), although some designs such as the LilyPad run at 8 MHz and dispense with the onboard voltage regulator due to specific form-factor restrictions. An Arduino's microcontroller is also pre-programmed with a boot loader that simplifies uploading of programs to the on-chip flash memory, compared with other devices that typically need an external programmer. This makes using an Arduino more straightforward by allowing the use of an ordinary computer as the programmer.

At a conceptual level, when using the Arduino software stack, all boards are programmed over an RS-232 serial connection, but the way this is implemented varies by hardware version. Serial Arduino boards contain a level shifter circuit to convert between RS-232-level and TTL-level signals. Current Arduino boards are programmed via USB, implemented using USB-to-serial adapter chips such as the FTDI FT232. Some variants, such as the Arduino Mini and the unofficial Boarduino, use a detachable USB-to-serial adapter board or cable, Bluetooth or other methods. (When used with traditional microcontroller tools instead of the Arduino IDE, standard AVR ISP programming is used.)

The Arduino board exposes most of the microcontroller's I/O pins for use by other circuits. The Diecimila, Duemilanove, and current Uno provide 14 digital I/O pins, six of which can produce pulse-width modulated signals, and six analog inputs, which can also be used as six digital I/O pins. These pins are on the top of the board, via female 0.10-inch (2.5 mm) headers. Several plug-in application shields are also commercially available. The Arduino Nano, and Arduino-compatible Bare Bones Board and Boarduino boards may provide male header pins on the underside of the board that can plug into solderless breadboards.

There are many Arduino-compatible and Arduino-derived boards. Some are functionally equivalent to an Arduino and can be used interchangeably. Many enhance the basic Arduino by adding output drivers, often for use in school-level education to simplify the construction of buggies and small robots. Others are electrically equivalent but change the form factor—sometimes retaining compatibility with shields, sometimes not. Some variants use completely different processors, with varying levels of compatibility.

Official boards[edit]

The original Arduino hardware is manufactured by the Italian company Smart Projects.[8] Some Arduino-branded boards have been designed by the American company SparkFun Electronics.[9] Sixteen versions of the Arduino hardware have been commercially produced to date.


Arduino and Arduino-compatible boards use shields—printed circuit expansion boards that plug into the normally supplied Arduino pin-headers. Shields can provide motor controls, GPS, ethernet, LCD, or breadboarding (prototyping). A number of shields can also be made DIY.[10][11][12]


Arduino Software IDE
Arduino 1.0 IDE, Ubuntu 11.10.png
A screenshot of the Arduino IDE showing the "Blink" program, a simple beginner program
Developer(s) Arduino Software
Stable release 1.0.6 / 16 September 2013 (2013-09-16)[13]
Preview release 1.5.6-r2 Beta / 21 February 2014 (2014-02-21)
Written in Java, C and C++
Operating system Cross-platform
Type Integrated development environment
License LGPL or GPL license
Website arduino.cc

The Arduino integrated development environment (IDE) is a cross-platform application written in Java, and derives from the IDE for the Processing programming language and the Wiring projects. It is designed to introduce programming to artists and other newcomers unfamiliar with software development. It includes a code editor with features such as syntax highlighting, brace matching, and automatic indentation, and is also capable of compiling and uploading programs to the board with a single click. A program or code written for Arduino is called a sketch.[14]

Arduino programs are written in C or C++. The Arduino IDE comes with a software library called "Wiring" from the original Wiring project, which makes many common input/output operations much easier. Users only need define two functions to make a runnable cyclic executive program:

  • setup(): a function run once at the start of a program that can initialize settings
  • loop(): a function called repeatedly until the board powers off

A typical first program for a microcontroller simply blinks an LED on and off. In the Arduino environment, the user might write a program like this:[15]

The integrated pin 13 LED
#define LED_PIN 13
void setup () {
  pinMode (LED_PIN, OUTPUT); // Enable pin 13 for digital output
void loop () {
  digitalWrite (LED_PIN, HIGH); // Turn on the LED
  delay (1000); // Wait one second (1000 milliseconds)
  digitalWrite (LED_PIN, LOW); // Turn off the LED
  delay (1000); // Wait one second

It is a feature of most Arduino boards that they have an LED and load resistor connected between pin 13 and ground; a convenient feature for many simple tests.[15] The previous code would not be seen by a standard C++ compiler as a valid program, so when the user clicks the "Upload to I/O board" button in the IDE, a copy of the code is written to a temporary file with an extra include header at the top and a very simple main() function at the bottom, to make it a valid C++ program.

The Arduino IDE uses the GNU toolchain and AVR Libc to compile programs, and uses avrdude to upload programs to the board.

As the Arduino platform uses Atmel microcontrollers, Atmel's development environment, AVR Studio or the newer Atmel Studio, may also be used to develop software for the Arduino.[16][17]


Arduino is open source hardware: the Arduino hardware reference designs are distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 2.5 license and are available on the Arduino Web site. Layout and production files for some versions of the Arduino hardware are also available. The source code for the IDE is available and released under the GNU General Public License, version 2.[18]

Although the hardware and software designs are freely available under copyleft licenses, the developers have requested that the name "Arduino" be exclusive to the official product and not be used for derivative works without permission. The official policy document on the use of the Arduino name emphasizes that the project is open to incorporating work by others into the official product.[19] Several Arduino-compatible products commercially released have avoided the "Arduino" name by using "-duino" name variants.[20]



The Arduino project received an honorary mention in the Digital Communities category at the 2006 Prix Ars Electronica.[24][25]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Official slogan". Arduino Project. Retrieved 2013-12-31. 
  2. ^ "How many Arduinos are "in the wild?" About 300,000". Adafruit Industries. May 15, 2011. Retrieved 2013-05-26. 
  3. ^ "Arduino FAQ – With David Cuartielles". Malmö University. April 5, 2013. Retrieved 2014-03-24. 
  4. ^ a b David Kushner (26 Oct 2011). "The Making of Arduino". IEEE Spectrum. 
  5. ^ Justin Lahart (27 November 2009). "Taking an Open-Source Approach to Hardware". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 7 September 2014. 
  6. ^ "Rhizome - Interview with Casey Reas and Ben Fry". 2009-09-23. Retrieved 2014-08-23. 
  7. ^ "Hardware Index". Arduino Project. Retrieved 2013-12-10. 
  8. ^ Smart Projects
  9. ^ Schmidt, M. ["Arduino: A Quick Start Guide"], Pragmatic Bookshelf, January 22, 2011, Pg. 201
  10. ^ "Arduino breadboard shield: US$10 & 10 mins". todbot.com
  11. ^ Igoe, Tom (April 4, 2006). "Arduino Shields for Prototyping". tigoe.net
  12. ^ Jonathan Oxer. "Arduino Shield list". Retrieved 5 Nov 2013. 
  13. ^ "Arduino Software Release Notes". Arduino Project. Retrieved May 31, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Programming Arduino Getting Started with Sketches". McGraw-Hill. Nov 8, 2011. Retrieved 2013-03-28. 
  15. ^ "Using Atmel Studio for Arduino development". Megunolink.com. Retrieved 2013-01-18. 
  16. ^ "Using AVR Studio for Arduino development". Engblaze.com. Retrieved 2013-01-18. 
  17. ^ "The arduino source code". The arduino source code. 
  18. ^ "Policy". Arduino.cc. Retrieved 2013-01-18. 
  19. ^ "Freeduino Open Designs". Freeduino.org. Retrieved 2008-03-03. 
  20. ^ "xoscillo – A software oscilloscope that acquires data using an arduino or a parallax (more platforms to come). – Google Project Hosting". Code.google.com. Retrieved 2013-01-18. 
  21. ^ Pearce, Joshua M. 2012. "Building Research Equipment with Free, Open-Source Hardware". Science 337 (6100): 1303–1304. (open access)
  22. ^ ArduinoPhone. Instructables.com (2013-07-17). Retrieved on 2013-08-04.
  23. ^ "Prix Ars Electronica 2006 – Digital Communities – ANERKENNUNGEN – listing" (in German). Retrieved 2009-02-18. 
  24. ^ "Prix Ars Electronica 2006 – Digital Communities – ANERKENNUNGEN – description" (in German). Retrieved 2009-02-18. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Arduino For Dummies; John Nussey; 446 pages; 2013; ISBN 978-1118446379.
  • Programming Arduino Next Steps: Going Further with Sketches; Simon Monk; 2013; ISBN 978-0071830256.
  • Exploring Arduino: Tools and Techniques for Engineering Wizardry; Jeremy Blum; 384 pages; 2013; ISBN 978-1118549360.
  • Arduino Workshop: A Hands-On Introduction with 65 Projects; John Boxall; 392 pages; 2013; ISBN 978-1593274481.
  • Beginning C for Arduino: Learn C Programming for the Arduino and Compatible Microcontrollers; Jack Purdum; 280 pages; 2012; ISBN 978-1430247760.
  • Programming Arduino: Getting Started With Sketches; Monk Simon; 162 pages; 2011; ISBN 978-0071784221.
  • Make: Electronics (Learning by Discovery); Charles Platt; 352 pages; 2009; ISBN 978-0596153748.

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arduino — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
1000000 videos foundNext > 

Tutorial 01 for Arduino: Getting Acquainted with Arduino

New Episodes each Monday! You can download the parts list and the code from this episode on my website: http://jeremyblum.com/2011/01/02/arduino-tutorial-ser...

Everything You Need To Know About Arduino

Ben teaches you everything you need to know to start using Arduino microcontrollers in your projects **New Episodes Every Other Monday!** Ask Ben Questions i...

Tested In-Depth: Getting Started with Arduino

Read our practical starter guide to the most popular Arduino kits here: http://www.tested.com/tech/robots/456466-know-your-arduino-guide-most-common-boards/ ...

#7: Comparing the Arduino and Raspberry Pi

Web: http://addohms.com/ep7 Twitter: @addohms On the surface both the Arduino and Raspberry Pi look like the same thing: inexpensive controller boards for el...

Use Arduino to Switch Power On and Off!

Mike picked up a $10 SainSmart 8 Channel DC 5V Relay Module, hooked it up to an Arduino micro controller (a Raspberry Pi should work, too!) and the next thin...

Arduino Stepper: Ultimate Accuracy!

I've always loved automation equipment. A grade school trip to a museum with a marble machine using pneumatics, sensors, servos and more had me hooked. Combi...

Introduction to Arduino

Go from blinking an LED to virtual prototyping in seven hours and still have time to eat lunch! This class is for anyone who has never played around with Arduino before and those who have played...

13 Fun Arduino Projects!

Read description for times of the projects! 13 Fun Arduino Projects made with the Arduino Uno. I highly recommend building these projects if your new to Ardu...

Massimo Banzi: How Arduino is open-sourcing imagination

http://www.ted.com Massimo Banzi helped invent the Arduino, a tiny, easy-to-use open-source microcontroller that's inspired thousands of people around the wo...

Conecta tus proyectos electronicos a internet con ethernet shield de arduino

LEER ANTES DE PREGUNTAR/// 1- por favor no insistan en que envie el codigo a sus correos,cosa que no haré, hay un servidor de descarga 2-la shield se cali...

1000000 videos foundNext > 

6460 news items

Geeky Gadgets (blog)

Geeky Gadgets (blog)
Fri, 24 Oct 2014 05:00:00 -0700

Makers, developers and hobbyists that are creating projects that need to body tracking signals or track fluctuations in body functions for medical devices, may be interested in a new Arduino compatible development board called the BITalino. The ...
Geeky Gadgets (blog)
Thu, 23 Oct 2014 04:26:15 -0700

Some of our readers might remember the Controllino PLC Arduino open source Internet of Things controller we featured here on Geeky Gadgets back in March of this year. Unfortunately back then their Kickstarter crowdfunding campaign failed to raise the ...
Geeky Gadgets (blog)
Thu, 23 Oct 2014 02:56:15 -0700

Makers, hobbyists and developers that enjoy building projects using the Arduino programming platform using Arduino Leonardo or small development boards, may find a new IMUduino worth more investigation. The small IMUduino Arduino Leonardo ...

Geeky Gadgets (blog)

Geeky Gadgets (blog)
Thu, 23 Oct 2014 03:18:45 -0700

A new Low Energy Bluetooth bridge for Arduino Shields has been created by Grabo based in Denton Texas, called the BLEasy, which has been designed to provide an “easy-to-use and one-to-many” Bluetooth Energy Bridge for Arduino projects. The BLEasy ...

Ars Technica

TechCrunch (blog)
Tue, 30 Sep 2014 14:59:08 -0700

There is by no means a shortage of teams working on low-cost 3D printers. Kickstarter is absolutely overflowing with them. But, as many of those teams quickly realize, shipping hardware is hard. A challenger approaches! Arduino, the company best known ...


Thu, 02 Oct 2014 14:57:14 -0700

Arduino may be known for revolutionizing open source hardware platforms, but this week enters the 3D printer market with the small and (relatively) affordable Materia 101. Produced in partnership with fellow Italian company Sharebot, the printer is ...

Geeky Gadgets (blog)

Geeky Gadgets (blog)
Wed, 22 Oct 2014 02:00:00 -0700

The EasyTouch capacitive touch sensor can be used with either the Arduino platform or the Raspberry Pi mini PC using the EasyPlug breakout board if required. Watch the video after the jump to learn more about the EasyTouch project and see it in action.
Tue, 30 Sep 2014 17:42:46 -0700

If you're a fan of Arduino's tinker-friendly approach to computing, you'll be glad to hear that it's now extending that open philosophy to 3D printers. The company has teamed up with Sharebot to unveil the Materia 101, a small (5.5 inches by 4 inches ...

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!