digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:


Applied sciences






















Applied ethics is the philosophical examination, from a moral standpoint, of particular issues in private and public life that are matters of moral judgment. It is thus the attempts to use philosophical methods to identify the morally correct course of action in various fields of human life. Bioethics, for example, is concerned with identifying the correct approach to matters such as euthanasia, or the allocation of scarce health resources, or the use of human embryos in research. Environmental ethics is concerned with questions such as the duties or duty of 'whistleblowers' to the general public as opposed to their loyalty to their employers. As such, it is an area of professional philosophy that is relatively well paid and highly valued both within and outside of academia.[1]

Applied ethics is distinguished from normative ethics, which concerns what people should believe to be right and wrong, and from meta-ethics, which concerns the nature of moral statements.

An emerging typology for applied ethics (Porter, 2006) uses seven domains to help improve organizations and social issues at the national and global level:

Modern approach[edit]

Much of applied ethics is concerned with just three theories:

  1. Utilitarianism, where the practical consequences of various policies are evaluated on the assumption that the right policy will be the one which results in the greatest happiness. This theories main developments came from Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill who distinguished between an act and rule utilitarianist morality. Later developments have also adjusted the theory, most notably Henry Sidgwick who introduced the idea of motive or intent in morality, and Peter Singer who introduced the idea of preference in to moral decision making.
  2. Deontological ethics, notions based on 'rules' i.e. that there is an obligation to perform the 'right' action, regardless of actual consequences (epitomized by Immanuel Kant's notion of the Categorical Imperative which was the centre to Kant's ethical theory based on duty). Another key deontological theory is Natural Law, which was heavily developed by Thomas Aquinas and is the basis of the Roman Catholic Church.
  3. Virtue ethics, derived from Aristotle's and Confucius's notions, which asserts that the right action will be that chosen by a suitably 'virtuous' agent.

One modern approach which attempts to overcome the seemingly impossible divide between deontology and utilitarianism (of which the divide is caused by the opposite takings of an absolute and relativist moral view) is case-based reasoning, also known as casuistry. Casuistry does not begin with theory, rather it starts with the immediate facts of a real and concrete case. While casuistry makes use of ethical theory, it does not view ethical theory as the most important feature of moral reasoning. Casuists, like Albert Jonsen and Stephen Toulmin (The Abuse of Casuistry 1988), challenge the traditional paradigm of applied ethics. Instead of starting from theory and applying theory to a particular case, casuists start with the particular case itself and then ask what morally significant features (including both theory and practical considerations) ought to be considered for that particular case. In their observations of medical ethics committees, Jonsen and Toulmin note that a consensus on particularly problematic moral cases often emerges when participants focus on the facts of the case, rather than on ideology or theory. Thus, a Rabbi, a Catholic priest, and an agnostic might agree that, in this particular case, the best approach is to withhold extraordinary medical care, while disagreeing on the reasons that support their individual positions. By focusing on cases and not on theory, those engaged in moral debate increase the possibility of agreement.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Brenda Almond, 'Applied Ethics', in Mautner, Thomas, Dictionary of Philosophy, Penguin 1996

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Applied_ethics — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
50093 videos foundNext > 

Peter Singer on Applied Ethics

Peter Singer is the Ira W. DeCamp Professor of Bioethics at Princeton University.

"Basic Philosophical & Applied Ethics" with Autumn Fiester, PhD

What is Ethics? What is Business Ethics? - Markkula Center for Applied Ethics

Introduction to ethics by Kirk O. Hanson, executive director of the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University What is ethics? Ethics is th...

Ethics Workshop Part 3 - Applied Ethics and Ethical Research

Applied Ethics and Ethical Research Shannon E. French Ph.D. - Inamori Professor of Ethics and Director, Inamori International Center for Ethics and Excellence.

Five Ways to Think Ethically - Markkula Center for Applied Ethics

A review of classical ethical approaches by Kirk O. Hanson, executive director of the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University. The five ...

Metaethics, Normative Ethics, and Applied Ethics

Discussing the three general branches of ethics.

Applied Ethics in Education - Thich Nhat Hanh

http://www.indiegogo.com/plantingseedsfilm Thich Nhat Hanh describes Applied Ethics in Education. See more of Thich Nhat Hanh in the new Peace is the Way fea...

Strategies for Managing Ethics - Markkula Center for Applied Ethics

Kirk O. Hanson, executive director of the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics, offers a comparative analysis of strategies companies use to manage ethics: Rel...

Engineering Ethics--Markkula Center for Applied Ethics

Michael McFarland, SJ, computer scientist and Jesuit priest, talks about why ethics is important for engineers and the impact of his Jesuit education on his ...

Applied Ethics

By: Abigail Parsons, Andrew Ross, & Zach Stanley.

50093 videos foundNext > 

We're sorry, but there's no news about "Applied ethics" right now.


Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Applied ethics

You can talk about Applied ethics with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!