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Applied ethics is the philosophical examination, from a moral standpoint, of particular issues in private and public life that are matters of moral judgment. It is thus the attempts to use philosophical methods to identify the morally correct course of action in various fields of human life. Bioethics, for example, is concerned with identifying the correct approach to matters such as euthanasia, or the allocation of scarce health resources, or the use of human embryos in research. Environmental ethics is concerned with questions such as the duties or duty of 'whistleblowers' to the general public as opposed to their loyalty to their employers. As such, it is an area of professional philosophy that is relatively well paid and highly valued both within and outside of academia.[1]

Applied ethics is distinguished from normative ethics, which concerns what people should believe to be right and wrong, and from meta-ethics, which concerns the nature of moral statements.

An emerging typology for applied ethics (Porter, 2006) uses seven domains to help improve organizations and social issues at the national and global level:

Modern approach[edit]

Much of applied ethics is concerned with just three theories:

  1. Utilitarianism, where the practical consequences of various policies are evaluated on the assumption that the right policy will be the one which results in the greatest happiness. This theories main developments came from Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill who distinguished between an act and rule utilitarianist morality. Later developments have also adjusted the theory, most notably Henry Sidgwick who introduced the idea of motive or intent in morality, and Peter Singer who introduced the idea of preference in to moral decision making.
  2. Deontological ethics, notions based on 'rules' i.e. that there is an obligation to perform the 'right' action, regardless of actual consequences (epitomized by Immanuel Kant's notion of the Categorical Imperative which was the centre to Kant's ethical theory based on duty). Another key deontological theory is Natural Law, which was heavily developed by Thomas Aquinas and is the basis of the Roman Catholic Church.
  3. Virtue ethics, derived from Aristotle's and Confucius's notions, which asserts that the right action will be that chosen by a suitably 'virtuous' agent.

One modern approach which attempts to overcome the seemingly impossible divide between deontology and utilitarianism (of which the divide is caused by the opposite takings of an absolute and relativist moral view) is case-based reasoning, also known as casuistry. Casuistry does not begin with theory, rather it starts with the immediate facts of a real and concrete case. While casuistry makes use of ethical theory, it does not view ethical theory as the most important feature of moral reasoning. Casuists, like Albert Jonsen and Stephen Toulmin (The Abuse of Casuistry 1988), challenge the traditional paradigm of applied ethics. Instead of starting from theory and applying theory to a particular case, casuists start with the particular case itself and then ask what morally significant features (including both theory and practical considerations) ought to be considered for that particular case. In their observations of medical ethics committees, Jonsen and Toulmin note that a consensus on particularly problematic moral cases often emerges when participants focus on the facts of the case, rather than on ideology or theory. Thus, a Rabbi, a Catholic priest, and an agnostic might agree that, in this particular case, the best approach is to withhold extraordinary medical care, while disagreeing on the reasons that support their individual positions. By focusing on cases and not on theory, those engaged in moral debate increase the possibility of agreement.

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  1. ^ Brenda Almond, 'Applied Ethics', in Mautner, Thomas, Dictionary of Philosophy, Penguin 1996

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Applied_ethics — Please support Wikipedia.
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70 news items

Philippine Information Agency

Philippine Information Agency
Mon, 18 Aug 2014 23:33:45 -0700

KORONADAL CITY, South Cotabato, Aug 19 (PIA) -- Thirty-one researchers across SOCCSKSARGEN Region have recently undergone a workshop on applied ethics in research aimed at giving emphasis on the importance of ethics and its components in ...
 
Journal and Courier
Sun, 17 Aug 2014 12:07:30 -0700

Hana Callaghan, director of government ethics at the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University, said legislators need to close the waiver loophole to stop the revolving door among regulators and the industries they regulate. "From a ...

Ethical Corporation Magazine

Ethical Corporation Magazine
Mon, 18 Aug 2014 06:30:00 -0700

“Professional sports are big business and global sports events even bigger,” says Kirk O Hansen, executive director of the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University in California. “They are major commercial and even diplomatic events.
 
MarketWatch
Thu, 14 Aug 2014 06:52:30 -0700

Work we've done at the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University points to several key steps every board should take to get out front of ethics problems. These include: 1. Know the health of the company's ethical culture. Most boards ...
 
San Francisco Business Times (blog)
Wed, 13 Aug 2014 13:48:45 -0700

... clearer image just from the fact that we're getting numbers from a variety of companies in the area, and they're showing great disparities in all of them," said Irina Raicu, director of Internet ethics at Santa Clara University's Markkula Center ...
 
Austin Business Journal
Wed, 13 Aug 2014 07:48:43 -0700

... clearer image just from the fact that we're getting numbers from a variety of companies in the area, and they're showing great disparities in all of them," said Irina Raicu, director of Internet ethics at Santa Clara University's Markkula Center ...
 
SFGate
Wed, 13 Aug 2014 23:04:39 -0700

"You're sending it to machines that are owned by the public, and you're taking away from staff time that is supposed to be spent on the public," said Hana Callaghan, director of government ethics at Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara ...

The Globe and Mail

The Globe and Mail
Sun, 17 Aug 2014 18:07:30 -0700

Hana Callaghan, director of the government ethics program at the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics, said the public does appreciate clean campaigns. But voters will listen to and take into account “negative” information if it's relevant to the issues ...
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