digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Sound change and alternation
Fortition
Dissimilation

In phonology, apocope (/əˈpɒkəp/) is the loss of one or more sounds from the end of a word, and especially the loss of an unstressed vowel.

Etymology[edit]

Apocope comes from Greek ἀποκοπή apokope from ἀποκόπτειν apokoptein, "cutting off", from ἀπο- apo-, "away from" and κόπτειν koptein, "to cut."

Historical sound change[edit]

In historical phonetics, the term apocope is often (but not always) limited to the loss of an unstressed vowel.

Loss of an unstressed vowel (with nasal)[edit]

  • Vulgar Latin pan[em] > Spanish pan (bread)
  • Vulgar Latin lup[um] > French lou[p] (wolf)

Loss of other sounds[edit]

  • Latin illu[d] > Spanish ello

Case marker[edit]

In the Estonian language and Sami languages, apocopes help explain the forms of grammatical cases. For example, a nominative is described as having apocope of the final vowel, whereas the genitive does not. Throughout its history, however, the genitive case marker has also undergone apocope: linn (a city) vs linna (of a city), is derived from linna and linnan, respectively. In the genitive form, final /n/, while being deleted, blocked the loss of /a/. In spoken Finnish, the final vowel is sometimes omitted from case markers.

Grammatical rule[edit]

Some languages have apocopations internalized as mandatory forms. In Spanish and Italian, for example, some adjectives that come before the noun lose the final vowel or syllable when they precede a noun (mainly) in the masculine singular form. In Spanish some adverbs, cardinal and ordinal numbers have apocopations as well.

  • Adjectives
    • Grande (big/great) → grangran mujer (feminine) (great woman. However, if the adjective follows the noun, the final syllable remains, but the meaning may also change: mujer grande, meaning large woman)
    • Bueno (good) → buenbuen hombre (masculine) (good man; the final vowel remains in hombre bueno, with no accompanying change in meaning)
  • Adverbs
    • Tanto (so much) → tan (so) → tan hermoso (so beautiful)
  • Cardinal numbers
  • Ordinal numbers
    • Primero (first) → primerprimer premio (first prize)
    • Tercero (third) → tercertercer lugar (third place)

Informal speech[edit]

Various sorts of informal abbreviations might be classed as apocope:

  • English photograph > photo
  • French sympathique(s) > sympa meaning nice
  • French réactionnaire > réac meaning reactionary
  • English animation > Japanese アニメーション animēshon > アニメ anime
  • English synchronization > sync, synch, syncro, or synchro
  • English Alexander > Alex and so on with other hypocorisms
  • Spanish fotografía > foto meaning photography
  • Spanish televisión > tele meaning television

For a list of similar apocopations in the English language, see List of English apocopations. These processes are also linguistically subsumed under a process called clipping or truncation.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Crowley, Terry. (1997) An Introduction to Historical Linguistics. 3rd edition. Oxford University Press.

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apocope — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
789 videos foundNext > 

Espanhol - Aula 04 - Apócope

Na nossa quarta aula de espanhol, o prof. Xandy irá nos mostrar a utilização das formas apocopadas na lingua espanhola. Aperte o play e bons estudos. Help us...

Apócope

Aula de Espanhol sobre: Apócope, sendo o conteúdo classificado para o 8º ano do E.F..

BEKONIC powered by Apocope - iBeacon - EN

Say HELLO to your digital customers In-store. Improve sales and build your customers loyalty through cross-channel. Designed to analyse your digital channels...

Espanhol intermediário (vídeo aula 01) O uso da apócope em Espanhol

Primeira aula nível intermediário - Aprenda espanhol.

J.A.E. - Tickets (Prod. The Apocope)

Tickets free download: https://puna.box.net/shared/iap3z3a2ql Deze nieuwe J.A.E. track komt van de mastering van Nightwatch Audio en is geproduceerd door The...

El apocope! xD

Shiiia aprende a habalrpo shyrloka! jaajaja y paulinda riete un pokito menos jajajaja adiios.

Les rendez-vous métiers - Directeur d'agence, avec Damien Bousson - Apocope

Rencontre avec Damien Bousson, directeur d'Apocope, une agence mobile et cross-commerce. Dans cet épisode des "rendez-vous métiers", il explique, par la dive...

Entenda quando usar apócope em espanhol

A professora Luísa Perissé ensina que as palavras grande e cualquiera vão apocopar diante de substantivos masculinos e femininos no singular.

Episode 19 Apocope

Une émission présentée par Brice Torrecillas Site officiel : http://www.aupieddelalettre.tv/ Suivez notre activité sur facebook : http://www.facebook.com/pag...

Roelie Vuitton ft. Big2 — JFB pt.2 (prod. The Apocope)

De nieuwste. Afkomstig van 'De Grote Chill 4/4', het vierde en laatste deel van Roelie's online-album. Vanaf 15 juni verkrijgbaar op http://www.roeliev.bandc...

789 videos foundNext > 

5 news items

Le Monde

Le Monde
Wed, 27 Aug 2014 05:11:15 -0700

L'apocope réalisant le régime d'amincissement conceptuel permet à des pensées et des concepts complexes de se glisser dans une forme express : une émission d'une heure, ou encore un article de deux pages. Aussi des formats de condensation comme ...
 
Yaquoi
Thu, 21 Aug 2014 22:48:45 -0700

Après les journées portes ouvertes aux ateliers d'artistes de Barjols, les expositions labellisées "c'est bien parti" à Barjols, Fox-Amphoux et Lorgues, l'exposition "L'art prend le relai - Autour de l'oeuvre de Michel Roux", organisée par L'Apocope à ...

Yahoo Notizie

Yahoo Notizie
Fri, 01 Aug 2014 02:38:36 -0700

L'esatta grafia di qual è non prevede l'apostrofo in quanto si tratta di un'apocope vocalica, che si produce anche davanti a consonante (qual buon vento vi porta?) e non di un'elisione che invece si produce soltanto prima di una vocale (e l'apostrofo è ...

Il Secolo XIX

Il Secolo XIX
Sat, 02 Aug 2014 00:47:57 -0700

Sia come sia, a questo punto urge un ripasso, se non per i senatori leghisti almeno per i messaggiatori compulsivi da smartphone o per i writer da arredo urbano: si scrive qual è, e non qual'è, perché si tratta di un'apòcope, e non di un'elisione.

Si24 - Il mondo visto da Palermo

Si24 - Il mondo visto da Palermo
Fri, 01 Aug 2014 01:26:15 -0700

Per ricordarlo, specie ai senatori, riportiamo quanto scrive l'autorevole Accademia della Crusca: L'esatta grafia di qual è non prevede l'apostrofo in quanto si tratta di un'apocope vocalica, che si produce anche davanti a consonante (qual buon vento ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Apocope

You can talk about Apocope with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!