digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Carrot family
Umbelliferae-apium-daucus-foeniculum-eryngium-petroselinum.jpg
Umbelliferae: Apium leaves and tiny inflorescences, Daucus habit, Foeniculum inflorescences, Eryngium inflorescences, Petroselinum root.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Apiaceae (or Umbelliferae)
Lindl.
Type genus
Apium
L.
Subfamilies
  • Mackinlayoideae Plunkett & Lowry
  • Azorelloideae Plunkett & Lowry
  • Saniculoideae Burnett
  • Apioideae Seemann

The Apiaceae (or Umbelliferae), commonly known as the celery, carrot or parsley family, are a family of mostly aromatic plants with hollow stems. The family, which is named after the type genus Apium, is large, with more than 3,700 species spread across 434 genera; it is the 16th-largest family of flowering plants.[1] Included in this family are the well-known plants: angelica, anise, arracacha, asafoetida, caraway, carrot, celery, Centella asiatica, chervil, cicely, coriander (cilantro), culantro, cumin, dill, fennel, hemlock, lovage, Queen Anne's lace, parsley, parsnip, cow parsnip, sea holly, giant hogweed and silphium, a plant whose identity is unclear and which may be extinct.

Description[edit]

Most Apiaceae are annual, biennial or perennial herbs (frequently with the leaves aggregated toward the base), though a minority are shrubs or trees. Their leaves are of variable size and alternately arranged, or alternate with the upper leaves becoming nearly opposite. In some taxa, the texture is leathery, fleshy, or even rigid, but always with stomata. They are petiolate or perfoliate and more or less sheathing, the blade usually dissected and pinnatifid, but entire in some genera. Most commonly, crushing their leaves emits a marked smell, aromatic to foetid, but absent in some members. The flowers are nearly always aggregated in terminal umbels, simple or compound, often umbelliform cymes, rarely in heads.

The defining characteristic of this family is the inflorescence: a simple or compound umbel. Flowers across the Apiaceae are fairly uniform and are usually perfect (hermaphroditic) and actinomorphic, but some are andromonoecious, polygamomonoecious, or even dioecious (as in Acronema), with a distinct calyx and corolla, but the calyx if often highly reduced, to the point of being undetectable in many species, while the corolla can be white, yellow, pink or purple. The flowers are nearly perfectly pentamerous, with five petals, sepals, and stamens. The androecium consists of five stamens, but there is often variation in the functionality of the stamens even within a single inflorescence. Some flowers are functionally staminate (where a pistil may be present but has no ovules capable of being fertilized) while others are functionally pistillate (where stamens are present but their anthers do not produce viable pollen). Pollination of one flower by the pollen of a different flower of the same plant (geitonogamy) is common. The gynoecium consists of two carpels fused into a single, bicarpellate pistil with an inferior ovary. When mature, the fused carpels separate into two mericarps. Stylopodiums secrete nectar, attracting pollinators like flies, mosquitoes, gnats, beetles, moths, and bees.

The fruits are nonfleshy schizocarp of two mericarps, each with a single seed; they separate at maturity and are dispersed by wind. Some fruit segments, like those in Daucus spp., are covered in bristles and spread via external transport. The seeds have an oily endosperm[2][3] and generally contain large quantities of fatty oils, with the fatty acid petroselinic acid occurring universally throughout the family while rarely being found outside of the Apiaceae.

Systematics[edit]

Apiaceae was first described by John Lindley in 1836.[4] The name is derived from the type genus Apium, which was originally used by Pliny the Elder circa 50 AD for a celery-like plant.[5] The alternative name for the family, Umbelliferae, derives from the inflorescence being generally in the form of a compound umbel. The family was one of the first to be recognized as a distinct group in Jacques Daleschamps' 1586 Historia generalis plantarum. With Robert Morison’s 1672 Plantarum umbelilliferarum distribution nova it became the first group of plants for which a systematic study was published.

The family is solidly placed within the Apiales order in the APG III classification system. It is closely related to Araliaceae and the boundaries between these families remain unclear. Traditionally groups within the family have been delimited largely based on fruit morphology, and the results from this have not been congruent with the more recent molecular phylogenetic analyses. The subfamilial and tribal classification for the family is currently in a state of flux, with many of the groups being found to be grossly paraphyletic or polyphyletic.[1]

Genera[edit]

According to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website as of July 2014 there are 434 genera in the family Apiaceae.[1]

Ecology[edit]

The black swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polyxenes, utilizes the Apiaceae family for food and host plants during oviposition.[7]

Uses[edit]

Many members of this family are cultivated for various purposes. The plant structure includes a tap root, which can be large enough to be useful in food, as with parsnips (Pastinaca sativa), carrots (Daucus carota), and Hamburg parsley (Petroselinum crispum). Many plants of this group are also adapted to conditions that encourage heavy concentrations of essential oils, and as a result some are flavourful aromatic herbs. Examples are parsley (Petroselinum crispum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), culantro, and dill (Anethum graveolens). The plentiful seeds of the umbels, likewise, are sometimes used in cuisine, as with, coriander (Coriandrum sativum), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), and caraway (Carum carvi).

Other notable cultivated Apiaceae include chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium), angelica (Angelica spp.), celery (Apium graveolens), arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza), poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), sea holly (Eryngium spp.), asafoetida (Ferula asafoetida), galbanum (Ferula gummosa), cicely (Myrrhis odorata), anise (Pimpinella anisum), lovage (Levisticum officinale), and hacquetia (Hacquetia epipactis).[2]

Cultivation[edit]

Generally all members of this family are best cultivated in the cooler season garden, indeed they may not grow at all if the soils are too warm.

Almost every widely cultivated plant of this group is a considered useful as a companion plant. One reason is because the tiny flowers clustered into umbels, are well suited for ladybugs, parasitic wasps, and predatory flies, which actually drink nectar when not reproducing. They then will prey upon insect pests on nearby plants.

Some of the members of this family that are considered "herbs" produce scent that are believed to mask the odours of nearby plants, thus making them harder for insect pests to find.

Other uses[edit]

The poisonous members of the Apiaceae have been used for a variety of purposes globally. The poisonous Oenanthe crocata has been used to stupefy fish, Cicuta douglasii has been used as an aid in suicides, and arrow poisons have been made from various other family species.

Daucus carota has been used as coloring for butter and its roots used as a coffee substitute.

Dorema ammoniacum, Ferula galbaniflua, and Ferula sumbul are sources of incense.

The woody Azorella compacta Phil. has been used in South America for fuel.

Chemistry[edit]

Polyacetylenes can be found in Apiaceae vegetables like carrot, celery, fennel, parsley and parsnip where they show cytotoxic activities.[8] Many species contain coumarins or coumarin derivatives, such as furanocoumarins.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 9, June 2008.
  2. ^ a b Watson, L., Dallwitz, M.J. (1992 onwards) The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. Version: 4 March 2011.
  3. ^ She, M., Pu, F., Pan, Z., Watson, M., Cannon, J.F.M., Holmes-Smith, I., Kljuykov, E.V., Phillippe, L.R., Pimenov, M.G. (2005). "Apiaceae". Flora of China 14: 1–205. 
  4. ^ Lindley, J. (1836) An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany, 2nd Edition. Longman, London.
  5. ^ Michael G. Simpson (20 July 2010). Plant Systematics. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-374380-0. Retrieved 14 April 2012. 
  6. ^ Woodville, W. (1793) Medical Botany. James Phillips, London.
  7. ^ Hall, Donald W. 2011 "Featured Creatures - Eastern Black Swallowtail." Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida. http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/bfly/bfly2/eastern_black_swallowtail.htm#life
  8. ^ Polyacetylenes from the Apiaceae Vegetables Carrot, Celery, Fennel, Parsley, and Parsnip and Their Cytotoxic Activities. Christian Zidorn, Karin Jöhrer, Markus Ganzera, Birthe Schubert, Elisabeth Maria Sigmund, Judith Mader, Richard Greil, Ernst P. Ellmerer and Hermann Stuppner, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53 (7), pages 2518–2523, doi:10.1021/jf048041s

Further reading[edit]

  • Apiaceae. 2011. Utah State University Intermountain Herbarium. 20 October 2011. http://herbarium.usu.edu/taxa/apiaceae.htm
  • Constance, L. (1971). "History of the classification of Umbelliferae (Apiaceae)." in Heywood, V. H. [ed.], The biology and chemistry of the Umbelliferae, 1–11. Academic Press, London.
  • Cronquist, A. (1968). The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
  • French, D. H. (1971). "Ethnobotany of the Umbelliferae." in Heywood, V. H. [ed.], The biology and chemistry of the Umbelliferae, 385–412. Academic Press, London.
  • Hegnauer, R. (1971) "Chemical Patterns and Relationships of Umbelliferae." in Heywood, V. H. [ed.], The biology and chemistry of the Umbelliferae, 267–277. Academic Press, London.
  • Heywood, V. H. (1971). "Systematic survey of Old World Umbelliferae." in Heywood, V. H. [ed.], The biology and chemistry of the Umbelliferae, 31–41. Academic Press, London.
  • Judd, W. S. et al. (1999). Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc.
  • Plunkett, G. M.; Downie, S. R. (1999). "Major lineages within Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae: a comparison of chloroplast restriction site and DNA sequence data". American Journal of Botany 86: 1014–1026. doi:10.2307/2656619. 
  • Plunkett, G. M.; Soltis, D. E.; Soltis, P. S. (1996). "Higher Level Relationships of Apiales (Apiaceae and Araliaceae) Based on Phylogenetic Analysis of rbcL Sequences". Botanical Society of America 83 (4): 499–515. doi:10.2307/2446219. 
  • Plunkett, G. M.; Soltis, D. E.; Soltis, P. S. (1996). "Evolutionary Patters in Apiaceae: Inferences Based on matK Sequence Data". American Society of Plant Taxonomists 21 (4): 477–495. doi:10.2307/2419610. 
  • Nieto Feliner, Gonzalo; Jury, Stephen Leonard & Herrero Nieto, Alberto (eds.) Flora iberica. Plantas vasculares de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. Vol. X. "Araliaceae-Umbelliferae" (2003) Madrid: Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC (in Spanish).

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apiaceae — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.

287 news items

The Missoulian

The Missoulian
Tue, 30 Jun 2015 15:07:30 -0700

Parsley, related to cilantro and in the Apiaceae family, has so many rich and wonderful benefits to the human systems. Fortunately its usage as a seasoning is endless. I love parsley's capacity to bring balance to so many dishes, whether added as a ...

Hamburg Sun

Hamburg Sun
Fri, 03 Jul 2015 11:11:15 -0700

It would have to feel great, though, to finally win a race for the member of the Apiaceae family, who had its closest shave with victory on its bobble head night, Aug. 3, 2013—a day now known infamously for “The Shove.” John Elway can have “The Drive.”

Waxahachie Daily Light

Waxahachie Daily Light
Sat, 27 Jun 2015 08:24:42 -0700

The Eastern Black Swallowtail, which is a beautiful but common butterfly, will lay its pale yellow eggs on a plant in the Apiaceae (commonly known as the carrot, celery or parsley) family. The plants are chosen because the taste and smell discourage ...

The Cannabist

The Cannabist
Fri, 12 Jun 2015 14:13:25 -0700

Personally I don't mind a crunchy celery stick, particularly when it's sticking out of a Bloody Mary, but this recipe is going to change the way we all think about this least-loved member of the apiaceae family, which also includes carrots and parsley ...
 
Redlands Daily Facts
Mon, 15 Jun 2015 20:45:00 -0700

A member of the Apiaceae family that also includes carrots, dill, fennel and parsley, the eryngium is a genus of about 230 species of annuals and perennials with unusual spiny holly-shaped leaves and striking dome-shaped flowers resembling thistles.

GreaterKashmir.com

GreaterKashmir.com
Mon, 08 Jun 2015 12:55:10 -0700

The largest families in the flora of Jammu and Kashmir are Poaceae and Asteraceae, followed by Leguminosae, Rosaceae, Brassicaceae, Lemiaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Apiaceae and Ranunculaceae. Among the gymnosperms Pinaceae ...

greenMe.it

greenMe.it
Fri, 26 Jun 2015 04:42:56 -0700

Il coriandolo, detto anche prezzemolo cinese e spesso conosciuto con il nome spagnolo cilantro, è una pianta erbacea annuale della famiglia delle Apiaceae (o Umbelliferae). Ha numerosissimi impieghi culinari e moltissime proprietà benefiche, ma non a ...

AGERPRES (Comunicat de Presă) (Înregistrare)

AGERPRES (Comunicat de Presă) (Înregistrare)
Tue, 23 Jun 2015 00:19:19 -0700

Coriandrul (Coriandrum sativum) este o specie de plantă erbacee anuală (mirodenie) din familia morcovului și a pătrunjelului (Apiaceae) folosită în prezent la scară largă. Datorită frunzelor sale asemănătoare cu ale pătrunjelului, coriandrul a primit ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight