digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Carrot family
Umbelliferae-apium-daucus-foeniculum-eryngium-petroselinum.jpg
Umbelliferae: Apium leaves and tiny inflorescences, Daucus habit, Foeniculum inflorescences, Eryngium inflorescences, Petroselinum root.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Apiaceae (or Umbelliferae)
Lindl.
Type genus
Apium
L.
Subfamilies
  • Mackinlayoideae Plunkett & Lowry
  • Azorelloideae Plunkett & Lowry
  • Saniculoideae Burnett
  • Apioideae Seemann

The Apiaceae (or Umbelliferae), commonly known as the celery, carrot or parsley family, are a family of mostly aromatic plants with hollow stems. The family, which is named after the type genus Apium, is large, with more than 3,700 species spread across 434 genera; it is the 16th-largest family of flowering plants.[1] Included in this family are the well-known plants: angelica, anise, arracacha, asafoetida, caraway, carrot, celery, Centella asiatica, chervil, cicely, coriander (cilantro), culantro, cumin, dill, fennel, hemlock, lovage, Queen Anne's lace, parsley, parsnip, sea holly, and the now extinct silphium.

Description[edit]

Most Apiaceae are annual, biennial or perennial herbs (frequently with the leaves aggregated toward the base), though a minority are shrubs or trees.They are multicellular plants. Their leaves are of variable size and alternately arranged, or alternate with the upper leaves becoming nearly opposite. In some taxa, the texture is leathery, fleshy, or even rigid, but always with stomata. They are petiolate or perfoliate and more or less sheathing, the blade usually dissected and pinnatifid, but entire in some genera. Most commonly, crushing their leaves emits a marked smell, aromatic to foetid, but absent in some members. The flowers are nearly always aggregated in terminal umbels, simple or compound, often umbelliform cymes, rarely in heads.

The defining characteristic of this family is the inflorescence: a simple or compound umbel. Flowers across the Apiaceae are fairly uniform and are usually perfect (hermaphroditic) and actinomorphic, but some are andromonoecious, polygamomonoecious, or even dioecious (as in Acronema), with a distinct calyx and corolla, but the calyx if often highly reduced, to the point of being undetectable in many species, while the corolla can be white, yellow, pink or purple. The flowers are nearly perfectly pentamerous, with 5 petals, sepals, and stamens. The androecium contains of 5 stamens, but there is often variation in the functionality of the stamens even within a single inflorescence. Some flowers are functionally staminate (where a pistil may be present but has no ovules capable of being fertilized) while others are functionally pistillate (where stamens are present but their anthers do not produce viable pollen). Pollination of one flower by the pollen of a different flower of the same plant (geitonogamy) is common. The gynoecium consists of two carpels fused into a single, bicarpellate pistil with an inferior ovary. When mature, the fused carpels separate into two mericarps. Stylopodiums secrete nectar, attracting pollinators like flies, mosquitoes, gnats, beetles, moths, and bees.

The fruits are nonfleshy schizocarp of two mericarps, each with a single seed; they separate at maturity and are dispersed by wind. Some fruit segments (like those in Daucus spp. are covered in bristles and spread via external transport. The seeds have an oily endosperm[2][3] and generally contain large quantities of fatty oils, with the fatty acid petroselinic acid occurring universally throughout the family while rarely being found outside of the Apiaceae.

Systematics[edit]

Apiaceae was first described by John Lindley in 1836.[4] The name is derived from the type genus Apium, which was originally used by Pliny the Elder circa 50 AD for a celery-like plant.[5] The alternative name for the family, Umbelliferae, derives from the inflorescence being generally in the form of a compound umbel. The family was one of the first to be recognized as a distinct group in Jacques Daleschamps' 1586 Historia generalis plantarum. With Robert Morison’s 1672 Plantarum umbelilliferarum distribution nova it became the first group of plants for which a systematic study was published.

The family is solidly placed within the Apiales order in the APG III classification system. It is closely related to Araliaceae and the boundaries between these families remain unclear. Traditionally groups within the family have been delimited largely based on fruit morphology, and the results from this have not been congruent with the more recent molecular phylogenetic analyses. The subfamilial and tribal classification for the family is currently in a state of flux, with many of the groups being found to be grossly paraphyletic or polyphyletic.[1]

Genera[edit]

According to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website as of July 2014 there are 434 genera in the family Apiaceae.[1]

Ecology[edit]

The black swallowtail butterfly, Papilio polyxenes, utilizes the Apiaceae family for food and host plants during oviposition.[7]

Uses[edit]

Cultivation[edit]

Many members of this family are cultivated for various purposes. The plant structure includes a tap root, which can be large enough to be useful in food, as with parsnips (Pastinaca sativa), carrots (Daucus carota), and Hamburg parsley (Petroselinum crispum). Many plants of this group are also adapted to conditions that encourage heavy concentrations of essential oils, and as a result some are flavourful aromatic herbs. Examples are parsley (Petroselinum crispum), coriander (Coriandrum sativum), culantro, and dill (Anethum graveolens). The plentiful seeds of the umbels, likewise, are sometimes used in cuisine, as with, coriander (Coriandrum sativum), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), cumin (Cuminum cyminum), and caraway (Carum carvi).

Other notable cultivated Apiaceae include chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium), angelica (Angelica spp.), celery (Apium graveolens), arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza), poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), sea holly (Eryngium spp.), asafoetida (Ferula asafoetida), galbanum (Ferula gummosa), cicely (Myrrhis odorata), anise (Pimpinella anisum), lovage (Levisticum officinale), and hacquetia (Hacquetia epipactis).[2]

Companion plants[edit]

Almost every widely cultivated plant of this group is a companion plant. In large part, this is because the tiny flowers forming the umbels, are perfectly suited for ladybugs, parasitic wasps, and predatory flies, which actually drink nectar when not reproducing. They then will prey upon insect pests on nearby plants.

Some of the plants are herbs that produce enough scent to possibly dilute the odours of nearby plants, or the pheromones emitted by insects that find those plants, which would otherwise attract more pests.

Other uses[edit]

The poisonous members of the Apiaceae have been used for a variety of purposes globally. The poisonous Oenanthe crocata has been used to stupefy fish, Cicuta douglasii has been used as an aid in suicides, and arrow poisons have been made from various other family species.

Daucus carota has been used as coloring for butter and its roots used as a coffee substitute.

Dorema ammoniacum, Ferula galbaniflua, and Ferula sumbul are sources of incense.

The woody Azorella compacta Phil. has been used in South America for fuel.

Chemistry[edit]

Polyacetylenes can be found in Apiaceae vegetables like carrot, celery, fennel, parsley and parsnip where they show cytotoxic activities.[8] Many species contain coumarins or coumarin derivatives, such as furanocoumarins.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 9, June 2008.
  2. ^ a b Watson, L., Dallwitz, M.J. (1992 onwards) The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. Version: 4 March 2011.
  3. ^ She, M., Pu, F., Pan, Z., Watson, M., Cannon, J.F.M., Holmes-Smith, I., Kljuykov, E.V., Phillippe, L.R., Pimenov, M.G. (2005). "Apiaceae". Flora of China 14: 1–205. 
  4. ^ Lindley, J. (1836) An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany, 2nd Edition. Longman, London.
  5. ^ Michael G. Simpson (20 July 2010). Plant Systematics. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-374380-0. Retrieved 14 April 2012. 
  6. ^ Woodville, W. (1793) Medical Botany. James Phillips, London.
  7. ^ Hall, Donald W. 2011 "Featured Creatures - Eastern Black Swallowtail." Entomology and Nematology Department, University of Florida. http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/bfly/bfly2/eastern_black_swallowtail.htm#life
  8. ^ Polyacetylenes from the Apiaceae Vegetables Carrot, Celery, Fennel, Parsley, and Parsnip and Their Cytotoxic Activities. Christian Zidorn, Karin Jöhrer, Markus Ganzera, Birthe Schubert, Elisabeth Maria Sigmund, Judith Mader, Richard Greil, Ernst P. Ellmerer and Hermann Stuppner, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53 (7), pages 2518–2523, doi:10.1021/jf048041s

Further reading[edit]

  • Apiaceae. 2011. Utah State University Intermountain Herbarium. 20 October 2011. http://herbarium.usu.edu/taxa/apiaceae.htm
  • Constance, L. (1971). “History of the classification of Umbelliferae (Apiaceae).” in Heywood, V. H. [ed.], The biology and chemistry of the Umbelliferae, 1–11. Academic Press, London.
  • Cronquist, A. (1968). The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
  • French, D. H. (1971). “Ethnobotany of the Umbelliferae.” in Heywood, V. H. [ed.], The biology and chemistry of the Umbelliferae, 385–412. Academic Press, London.
  • Hegnauer, R. (1971) “Chemical Patterns and Relationships of Umbelliferae.” in Heywood, V. H. [ed.], The biology and chemistry of the Umbelliferae, 267–277. Academic Press, London.
  • Heywood, V. H. (1971). “Systematic survey of Old World Umbelliferae.” in Heywood, V. H. [ed.], The biology and chemistry of the Umbelliferae, 31–41. Academic Press, London.
  • Judd, W. S. et al. (1999). Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc.
  • Plunkett, G. M. and S. R. Downie (1999). “Major lineages within Apiaceae subfamily Apioideae: a comparison of chloroplast restriction site and DNA sequence data.” American Journal of Botany, 86, 1014–1026.
  • Plunkett, G. M., D. E. Soltis, and P. S. Soltis (1996). “Higher Level Relationships of Apiales (Apiaceae and Araliaceae) Based on Phylogenetic Analysis of rbcL Sequences.” Botanical Society of America, 83 (4), 499–515.
  • Plunkett, G. M., D. E. Soltis, and P. S. Soltis (1996). “Evolutionary Patters in Apiaceae: Inferences Based on matK Sequence Data.” American Society of Plant Taxonomists, 21 (4), 477–495.
  • Nieto Feliner, Gonzalo; Jury, Stephen Leonard & Herrero Nieto, Alberto (eds.) Flora iberica. Plantas vasculares de la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. Vol. X. "Araliaceae-Umbelliferae" (2003) Madrid: Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC (in Spanish).

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apiaceae — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
2118 videos foundNext > 

GW Bits - Carol Klein - Apiaceae

2010. From Gardeners' World. Carol's weekly look at plant families.

Apiaceae

Overview of the Apiaceae, the Parsley or Carrot Plant Family.

Wildflowers: Apiaceae or Carrot Family

A sampling of native plants related to carrots and dill- the Apiaceae family- in the inland Northwest. Many of these photos are of biscuitroot or desert pars...

Cicuta - Apiaceae & Algae (2014)

Atmospheric Black Metal from Netherlands From the "Apiaceae & Algae" EP released in 2014 BandCamp: http://waterhemlock.bandcamp.com/releases Band: Cicuta Alb...

Apiaceae Family Flower

A simple illustration of the Apiaceae family flower from a Taxonomical point of view Website: http://drzakaria.tumblr.com Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/...

2.8 Apiaceae - Skærmplante-familien

Næste: 2.9 Asteraceae - Kurvblomst-familien - http://youtu.be/7e5fgsQrEwg Forrige: 2.7 Lamiaceae - Læbeblomst-familien - http://youtu.be/9tOcAMPeFv0.

Conium maculatum (Apiaceae)

Plants of future: http://www.pfaf.org/user/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Conium+maculatum · GRIN - Taxonomic information: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/...

Azorella compacta (Apiaceae) ´YARETA´ en detalle

Azorella compacta (Apiaceae) ´YARETA´ en detalle.

Sanikel, kleines Waldkraut, Doldenblütler (Apiaceae)

Heilpflanzen / Sanikel Sanikel. Pflanzennamen im Volksmund kleines Waldkraut Wissenschaftlicher Name Sanicula L. Pflanzenfamilie Doldenblütler (Apiaceae) Hei...

Exkursionen NRW 35 - Apiaceae

Ihr habt Fragen, Anmerkungen, Probleme oder sonstige Anliegen? Dann schreibt eine Mail an MephistoTV@gmail.com, aber beachtet auf jeden Fall die folgenden Re...

2118 videos foundNext > 

17 news items

North Devon Journal

North Devon Journal
Fri, 12 Sep 2014 01:26:15 -0700

"This is especially important when it comes to fungi and the carrot family (Apiaceae)." Visitors to Eden can learn more about the art of foraging when Emma does a wild food demonstration at the Harvest food festival on Friday, September 12, where she ...
 
Packet Online
Thu, 04 Sep 2014 13:15:00 -0700

I love fennel and celery, but don't find myself cooking with them often. They are members of the same family as parsley, Apiaceae, and come into season in the fall. They make good "transition" foods, crunchy and bright used raw in salads when the ...
 
southern chester county weeklies
Fri, 22 Aug 2014 07:05:32 -0700

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae. It is native from southern Europe and North Africa to southwestern Asia. The leaves may be referred to as coriander leaves, fresh coriander, Chinese parsley, or cilantro. Cilantro ...
 
The Oregonian - OregonLive.com
Wed, 20 Aug 2014 07:45:31 -0700

The flowers of plants in the Apiaceae family (including carrots, parsnips, celery, parsnip, cilantro and dill) are known to be especially good at attracting parasitic wasps and other beneficial insects. Q: When and how should I use chemical methods? A ...
 
Lock Haven Express
Tue, 02 Sep 2014 22:15:00 -0700

It's a direct descendant of wild celery and a member of the Apiaceae family with parsnips, fennel, and parsley, possessing in appearance or flavor some of those characteristics. Celeriac or knob celery is an example, although this cultivar has a light ...
 
Food Consumer
Thu, 04 Sep 2014 14:00:00 -0700

Thursday Sep 4, 2014 (foodconsumer.org) -- A study led by scientists at Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran suggests that H. persicum hydroalcoholic fruit extract helps patients with minimal coronary artery disease to lower risk ...

Slate Magazine (blog)

Slate Magazine (blog)
Thu, 21 Aug 2014 04:27:44 -0700

Conium maculatum is a genus of two poisonous species of herbaceous, perennial, flowering herbs in the Apiaceae family. The hemlock species is native to the Mediterranean region, and the other, called Conium chaerophylloides, comes from Southern Africa ...

Milliyet

Milliyet
Sun, 14 Sep 2014 23:50:40 -0700

Baldıran, maydanozgiller (Apiaceae) familyasından, bazı zehirli bitkilerin ve bu bitkilerden elde edilen zehrin ortak adıdır. Nemli yerlerde yetişen, 1-2 metre boylanabilen bir bitki olup, gövdesi kalındır. Saplarının alt kısmı erguvani renktedir ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Apiaceae

You can talk about Apiaceae with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!