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For the breed of cattle, see Ankole-Watusi (cattle).
Kingdom of Ankole and its districts
State flag of the Kingdom of Ankole

Ankole, also referred to as Nkore, is one of four traditional kingdoms in Uganda. The kingdom is located in the southwestern Uganda, east of Lake Edward. It was ruled by a monarch known as The Mugabe or Omugabe of Ankole. The kingdom was formally abolished in 1967 by the government of President Milton Obote, and is still not officially restored.[1] The people of Ankole are called Banyankole (singular: Munyankole) in Runyankole language, a Bantu language.

On 25 October 1901 the Kingdom of Nkore was incorporated into the British Protectorate of Uganda by the signing of the Ankole agreement.[2]

Due to the reorganisation of the country by Idi Amin, Ankole no longer exists as an administrative unit. It is divided into ten districts, namely: Bushenyi District, Buhweju District, Mitooma District, Rubirizi District, Sheema District, Ntungamo District, Mbarara District, Kiruhura District, Ibanda District and Isingiro District.

History of pre-colonial ethnic relations in Ankole[edit]

The pastoralist Hima (also known as Bahima) established dominion over the agricultural Iru (also known as Bairu) some time before the nineteenth century. The Hima and Iru established close relations based on trade and symbolic recognition, but they were unequal partners in these relations. The Iru were legally and socially inferior to the Hima, and the symbol of this inequality was cattle, which only the Hima could own. The two groups retained their separate identities through rules prohibiting intermarriage and, when such marriages occurred, making them invalid.

The Hima provided cattle products that otherwise would not have been available to Iru farmers. Because the Hima population was much smaller than the Iru population, gifts and tribute demanded by the Hima could be supplied fairly easily. These factors probably made Hima-Iru relations tolerable, but they were nonetheless reinforced by the superior military organization and training of the Hima.

The kingdom of Ankole expanded by annexing territory to the south and east. In many cases, conquered herders were incorporated into the dominant Hima stratum of society, and agricultural populations were adopted as Iru or slaves and treated as legal inferiors. Neither group could own cattle, and slaves could not herd cattle owned by the Hima.

Ankole society evolved into a system of ranked statuses, where even among the cattle-owning elite, patron-client ties were important in maintaining social order. Men gave cattle to the king (mugabe) to demonstrate their loyalty and to mark life-cycle changes or victories in cattle raiding. This loyalty was often tested by the king's demands for cattle or for military service. In return for homage and military service, a man received protection from the king, both from external enemies and from factional disputes with other cattle owners.

The mugabe authorized his most powerful chiefs to recruit and lead armies on his behalf, and these warrior bands were charged with protecting Ankole borders. Only Hima men could serve in the army, however, and the prohibition on Iru military training almost eliminated the threat of Iru rebellion. Iru legal inferiority was also symbolized in the legal prohibition against Iru owning cattle. And, because marriages were legitimized through the exchange of cattle, this prohibition helped reinforce the ban on Hima-Iru intermarriage. The Iru were also denied highlevel political appointments, although they were often appointed to assist local administrators in Iru villages.

The Iru had a number of ways to redress grievances against Hima overlords, despite their legal inferiority. Iru men could petition the king to end unfair treatment by a Hima patron. Iru people could not be subjugated to Hima cattle-owners without entering into a patron-client contract.

A number of social pressures worked to destroy Hima domination of Ankole. Miscegenation took place despite prohibitions on intermarriage, and children of these unions (abambari) often demanded their rights as cattle owners, leading to feuding and cattle-raiding. From what is present-day Rwanda groups launched repeated attacks against the Hima during the nineteenth century. To counteract these pressures, several Hima warlords recruited Iru men into their armies to protect the southern borders of Ankole.

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Observer Media Ltd. :: The Weekly Observer :: Uganda's Top Resource site
  2. ^ The Ankole Agreement 1901

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Library of Congress Country Studies.

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ankole — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
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735 news items

NBC 7 San Diego

NBC 7 San Diego
Wed, 21 Jan 2015 10:00:00 -0800

So as he's being handraised (and getting 3 bottles per feeding), staffers have introduced Chutti to Moo Moo Kitty, an Ankole cow. If the two bond, they could spend time together until Chutti is weaned in 14 to 15 months, zoo officials said. The one ...

Mashable

Imperial Valley News
Fri, 09 Jan 2015 21:26:15 -0800

The female Ankole calf, affectionately named Moo Moo Kitty by keepers, was born on May 23 and also was born to a first-time mother that couldn't properly care for her calf. Keepers hand-raised and recently weaned the Ankole, and they felt she would ...

New Vision

New Vision
Fri, 23 Jan 2015 06:54:54 -0800

A dot com child from Acholi or Buganda, who struggles to understand his or her parents' spoken English and culture, has now more in common, culturally and in value terms, with their counterparts in Lango or Ankole. Everyone appears to have become ...

RedOrbit

RedOrbit
Fri, 04 Jul 2014 08:17:47 -0700

The Ankole-Watusi is a breed of cattle native to Africa. It is also known as the Anokle longhorn. The Ankole-Watusi have been illustrated on ancient rock paintings, Egyptian art and on pyramid walls. A breed called the Sanga spread to eastern Africa ...

New Vision

New Vision
Mon, 10 Nov 2014 01:14:21 -0800

Like tourism clusters in different parts of the country, GANTONE is working with UTB to promote tourism in the Ankole area by helping stakeholders to network; to acquire skills in managing tourism ventures and to enforce the right standards in the ...
 
The Observer (blog)
Thu, 06 Nov 2014 11:52:30 -0800

Dr Katatumba's article came hot on the heels of a recent workshop UTB jointly held in Mbarara with members of GANTONE (Greater Ankole Tourism Network) regional tourism cluster. Like tourism clusters in different parts of the country, GANTONE is working ...

Canadian Jewish News (blog)

Canadian Jewish News (blog)
Tue, 20 Jan 2015 08:41:15 -0800

The domestic livestock of Africa provide a petting zoo featuring Ankole cattle, dwarf donkeys and Nubian goats. An unforgettable experience is a camel ride across the desert sands. Be sure to see the wonderful train display. Some exhibits and rides are ...
 
The Observer (blog)
Thu, 27 Nov 2014 13:33:45 -0800

The High court in Mbarara on Tuesday ordered West Ankole Bishop Yona Katonene to appear in court next month. Justice Duncan Gaswaga was angry that the bishop skipped court, over a case in which he is accused of trying to transfer Ankole Western ...
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