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Anglo-Indians are people who have mixed Indian and British ancestry, or people of British descent born or living in the Indian Subcontinent or Burma, now mainly historical in the latter sense. British residents in India used the term "Eurasians" for people of mixed European and Indian descent (cf. George Orwell's Burmese Days). The Oxford Dictionary's definition of "Anglo-Indian" is "Of mixed British and Indian parentage, of Indian descent but born or living in Britain, or (chiefly historical) of British descent or birth but living or having lived long in India".
The Anglo-Indian community in its modern sense is a distinct, small minority community originating in India. It consists of people from mixed British and Indian ancestry whose native language is English. An Anglo-Indian's British ancestry was usually bequeathed paternally.
(2) an Anglo Indian means a person whose father or any of whose other male progenitors in the male line is or was of European descent but who is domiciled within the territory of India and is or was born within such territory of parents habitually resident therein and not established there for temporary purposes only;
This definition extends "Anglo-Indian" to include Indians of purely European (male) ancestry.
This definition also embraces the descendants of the Indians from the old Portuguese colonies of both the Coromandel and Malabar Coasts, who joined the East India Company as mercenaries and brought their families with them. Similarly the definition includes mestiços (mixed Portuguese and Indian) of Goa and people of Indo-French, and Indo-Dutch descent.
Anglo-Indians formed a significant portion of the minority community in India before independence, but today more live outside India than within it. The Anglo-Indian population in India dwindled from roughly 500,000 in 1947 to fewer than 150,000 by 2010. Many emigrated to the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, South Africa, New Zealand and the United States.
The first use of the term was to describe all British people living in India. This is the definition contained in the Indian Constitution. However in popular usage the term changed to describe Anglo-Indians as people who were of mixed blood descending from the British on the male side and women from the Indian side. People of mixed British and Indian descent were previously referred to as 'Eurasians' but are now more commonly referred to as 'Anglo-Indians'.
During the British East India Company's rule in India in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, it was initially fairly common for British officers and soldiers to take local Indian wives and have Eurasian children, due to a lack of British women in India at the time. By the mid-19th century, there were around 40,000 British soldiers, but less than 2,000 British officials present in India. As British women began arriving in British India in large numbers around the early to mid-19th century, mostly as family members of British officers and soldiers, intermarriage became increasingly uncommon among the British in India and was later despised after the events of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, after which several anti-miscegenation laws were implemented. As a result, Eurasians were neglected by both the British and Indian populations in India.
Over generations, Anglo-Indians intermarried with other Anglo-Indians to form a community that developed a culture of its own. Anglo-Indian cuisine, dress, speech and religion all served to further segregate Anglo-Indians from the native population. They established a school system focused on the English language and culture and formed social clubs and associations to run functions like their regular dances on occasions like Christmas and Easter.
Over time Anglo-Indians were specifically recruited into the Customs and Excise, Post and Telegraphs, Forestry Department, The Railways and teaching professions - but they were employed in many other fields as well. A number of factors fostered a strong sense of community among Anglo-Indians. Their English language school system, their Anglo-centric culture, and their Christian beliefs in particular helped bind them together.
Originally, under Regulation VIII of 1813, they were excluded from the British legal system and in Bengal became subject to the rule of Mohammedan law outside Calcutta - and yet found themselves without any caste or status amongst those who were to judge them. In 1821, a pamphlet entitled "Thoughts on how to better the condition of Indo-Britons" by a "Practical Reformer," was written to promote the removal of prejudices existing in the minds of young Eurasians against engaging in trades. This was followed up by another pamphlet, entitled "An Appeal on behalf of Indo-Britons." Prominent Eurasians in Calcutta formed the "East Indian Committee" with a view to send a petition to the British Parliament for the redress of their grievances. Mr. John William Ricketts, the first noble pioneer in the Eurasian cause, volunteered to proceed to England. His mission was successful, and on his return to India, by way of Madras, he received quite an ovation from his countrymen in that presidency; and was afterwards warmly welcomed in Calcutta, where a report of his mission was read at a public meeting held in the Calcutta Town Hall. In April 1834, in obedience to an Act of Parliament passed in August 1833, the Indian Government was forced to grant government jobs to Anglo-Indians.
During the independence movement, many Anglo-Indians identified (or were assumed to identify) with British rule, and, therefore, incurred the distrust and hostility of Indian nationalists. Their position at independence was difficult. They felt a loyalty to a British "home" that most had never seen and where they would gain little social acceptance. (Bhowani Junction touches on the identity crisis faced by the Anglo-Indian community during the independence struggle.) They felt insecure in an India that put a premium on participation in the independence movement as a prerequisite for important government positions.
Most Anglo-Indians left the country in 1947, hoping to make a new life in the United Kingdom or elsewhere in the Commonwealth of Nations, such as Australia or Canada. The exodus continued through the 1950s and 1960s and by the late 1990s most had left with many of the remaining Anglo-Indians still aspiring to leave.
Like the Parsi community, the Anglo-Indians are essentially urban dwellers. Unlike the Parsis, the mass migrations saw more of the better educated and financially secure Anglo-Indians depart for other Commonwealth nations.
There has been a resurgence in celebrating Anglo-Indian culture in the 21st Century, in the form of International Anglo-Indian Reunions and in publishing books on Anglo-Indians. There have been seven reunions with the latest being held in August 2007 in Toronto. Books on Anglo-Indians recently published include Anglo-Indians - Vanishing Remnants of a Bygone Era published (2002), Haunting India published (2003), Voices on the Verandah published (2004), The Way We Were - Anglo-Indian Chronicles published (2006) and The Way We Are - An Anglo-Indian Mosaic published (2008). "The Leopard's Call: An Anglo-Indian Love Story" by Reginald Shires, published 2005, tells of the life of two teachers at the small Bengali town of Falakata, down from Bhutan; "At the Age for Love: A Novel of Bangalore during World War II" by Reginald N. Shires, published 2006, is a story of Anglo-Indian life during the war.
Present communities 
India constitutionally guarantees of the rights of communities and religious and linguistic minorities permit Anglo-Indians to maintain their own schools and to use English as the medium of instruction. In order to encourage the integration of the community into the larger society, the government stipulates that a certain percentage of the student body come from other Indian communities.
There is no evident official discrimination against Anglo-Indians in terms of current government employment, but it is widely perceived[by whom?] that their disinclination to master local languages does not help their employment chances in modern India.
In a 2013 BBC news feature on Anglo-Indians, journalist Kris Griffiths wrote: "It has been noted in recent years that the number of Anglo-Indians who have succeeded in certain fields is remarkably disproportionate to the community's size. For example, in the music industry there are Engelbert Humperdinck (born Madras), Peter Sarstedt (Delhi) and Cliff Richard (Lucknow). The looser definition of Anglo-Indian (any mixed British-Indian parentage) encompasses the likes of cricketer Nasser Hussain, footballer Michael Chopra and actor Ben Kingsley."
Anglo-Indians distinguished themselves in the military. Air Vice-Marshal Maurice Barker was India's first Anglo-Indian Air Marshal. At least seven other Anglo-Indians subsequently reached that post, a notable achievement for a small community. A number of others have been decorated for military achievements. Air Marshal Malcolm Wollen is often considered the man who won India's 1971 war fighting alongside Bangladesh. Anglo-Indians made similarly significant contributions to the Indian Navy and Army.
Another field in which Anglo-Indians won distinction was education. The second most respected matriculation qualification in India, the ICSE, was started and built by some of the community's best known educationists including Frank Anthony, who served as its president, and A.E.T. Barrow who served as its secretary for the better part of half a century. Most Anglo-Indians, even those without much formal education, find that gaining employment in schools is fairly easy because of their fluency in English.
In sporting circles Anglo-Indians have made a significant contribution, particularly at Olympic level where Norman Pritchard became India's first ever Olympic medallist, winning two silver medals at the 1900 Olympic Games in Paris, France. In cricket Roger Binny was the leading wicket-taker during the Indian cricket team's 1983 World Cup triumph. Wilson Jones was India's first ever World Professional Billiards Champion.
Several charities have been set up abroad to help the less fortunate in the community in India. Foremost among these is CTR (Calcutta Tiljallah Relief - based in the USA), which has instituted a senior pension scheme, and provides monthly pensions to over 300 seniors. CTR also provides education to over 200 needy children.
Today, there are estimated to be 80,000-125,000 Anglo-Indians living in India, most of whom are based in the cities of Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Mysore, Hyderabad, Kanpur, Mumbai, Madurai and Tiruchirapalli. Anglo-Indians also live in Kochi, Kollam, Kozhikode, Cannanore, Goa, Pune, Secunderabad, Visakhapatnam, Lucknow, Agra, and in some towns of Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal. Also a significant number of this population resides in Odisha's Khurda Road, which is a busy railway junction. However, the Anglo Indian population has dwindled over the years with most people migrating abroad or to other parts of the country.
Most of the Anglo-Indians overseas are concentrated in Britain, Australia, Canada, USA, and New Zealand. Of the estimated million or so (including descendants), who have emigrated from India, some are settled in Asia including Pakistan and Myanmar, and also in European countries like Switzerland, Germany, and France. According to the Anglo-Indians who have settled in Australia, integration for the most part has not been difficult. The community in Myanmar frequently intermarried with the local Anglo-Burmese community but both communities suffered from adverse discrimination since Burma's military took over the government in the 1962, with most having now left the country to settle overseas.
Political status 
The Anglo-Indian community is the only Indian community that has its own representatives nominated to the Lok Sabha (Lower House) in India's Parliament. This right was secured from Nehru by Frank Anthony, the first and longtime president of the All India Anglo-Indian Association. The community is represented by two members. This is done because the community has no native state of its own. States like Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Bihar, West Bengal, Karnataka Uttarakhand and Kerala also have a nominated member each in their respective State Legislatures.
Other populations 
Britons in colonial India 
Historically, the term Anglo-Indian was also used in common parlance in Britain during the colonial era to refer to those people (such as Rudyard Kipling, or the hunter-naturalist Jim Corbett), who were of British descent but were born and raised in India, usually because their parents were serving in the colonial administration or armed forces; "Anglo-Indian", in this sense, was synonymous with "non-domiciled British".
Anglo-Indian population in Britain 
Since the mid-19th century, there has been a population of people of Indian (like Lascars) or mixed British-Indian ethnic origin residing in Britain, both through intermarriage between white Britons and Indians, and through the migration of Anglo-Indians from India to Britain. Though sometimes referred to as Anglo-Indians, people of Indian or mixed British-Indian ethnicity residing in Britain generally like to be called Anglo-Indians, also preferring the terms White British, British Indian and mixed White-Asian instead. The first and latter categorisations are also used by the UK census.
Notable persons of Anglo-Indian descent 
Anglo-Indians of European descent (original definition) 
- Pete Best, original drummer for the Beatles.
- Lawrence Durrell, novelist, poet, dramatist, travel writer and diplomat.
- Gerald Durrell, writer, naturalist, conservationist and television presenter
- Rudyard Kipling, writer. The first English-language writer to win the Nobel Prize for Literature.
- Joanna Lumley, actress.
- George Orwell, author of 1984 and Animal Farm.
- Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts - British soldier.
- Ruskin Bond, writer
Anglo-Indians of Eurasian descent (new definition) 
- Frank Anthony, lawyer, Anglo-Indian activist, politician, educationist, Indian representative at the United Nations, author of Britain's Betrayal in India: The Story of the Anglo-Indian Community
- Norman Anil Kumar Browne - Air Chief Marshal & Current Chief of the Air Staff of the IAF
- Gabrielle Anwar - actress
- Andrea Jeremiah, actress
- Marcus Bartley, cinematographer
- Oscar Stanley Dawson, Admiral, Chief of the Naval Staff of the Indian Navy from 1 March 1982 to 30 November 1984.
- Roger Binny, former Indian cricketer
- Tony Brent - singer.
- Leslie Claudius, field hockey player, won 4 Olympic Medals from 1948-1960 (3 gold, 1 silver).
- Sebastian Coe, British Athlete and Peer
- Patience Cooper, Indian film actress.
- Admiral Ronald Lynsdale Pereira - chief of the Indian Navy (1979-1982)
- Admiral Oscar Stanley Dawson - chief of the Indian Navy (1982–1984)
- Henry Derozio, 1809–1831, Calcutta poet, author of Harp of India.
- Glen Duncan, author
- Marc Elliott, actor
- Denis La Fontaine, Air Chief Marshal, Chief of the Air Staff, Indian Air Force
- Naomi Scott, actress (Fox: Terra Nova)
- S.L.J Gallyôt, Former Assistant director of Foreign Exchange Management Act
- Henry Gidney - educationist (1873–1942)
- Rory Girvan, British Actor.
- Diana Hayden, actress and former Miss World
- Ricky Heppolette - Footballer
- Engelbert Humperdinck - singer (real name, Arnold Dorsey)
- Norman Douglas Hutchinson Royal Painter
- Leon Ireland, lead singer of the Indian rock music band Moksha
- Holly Johnson, singer. In his autobiography, Johnson stated that while his grandfather looked white, he was actually 3/4 Indian.
- Wilson Jones, former billiards World Champion
- Noel Jones, British ambassador.
- Boris Karloff, actor; grandnephew of Anna Leonowens
- Sara Karloff, writer; daughter of Boris Karloff
- Kevin Keelan, Norwich City goalkeeper
- Denzil Keelor, IAF hero in 1971 War with Pakistan
- Trevor Keelor, IAF hero in 1971 War with Pakistan
- Helen Richardson Khan, Bollywood actress
- Sir Ben Kingsley, British actor
- Anna Leonowens (1834–1915), British governess to the Siamese court on whose life story The King and I was based
- Louis T. Leonowens (1856–1919), Siamese cavalry officer and trader; son of Anna Leonowens
- Julian MacLaren-Ross (1912 – 1964) British novelist.
- Frederick Akbar Mahomed - physician; grandson of Sake Dean Mahomed
- Colin Mathura-Jeffree New Zealand model and actor
- John Mayer, violinist, composer and teacher. Put together the Indo-Jazz Fusions double quartet in 1967.
- Alistair McGowan - impressionist, comedian and actor
- Rhona Mitra - English actress, model and singer
- Richard Nerurkar - British long-distance runner
- Betty Nuthall - tennis player (first non-American to win the U.S. Nationals, in 1930).
- Merle Oberon, actress, born in India.
- Derek O'Brien, quizmaster; Member of Parliament(Rajya Sabha)
- Russell Peters, Canadian stand-up comic and actor
- Diana Quick, actress
- Timo Räisänen - Indie artist from Sweden.
- Cliff Richard - pop singer (real name, Harry Webb)
- Paul Sabu, musician.
- Allan Sealy, Novelist
- Nicollette Sheridan - actress.
- Adam Sinclair, Indian Hockey player born in Coimbatore
- Melanie Sykes - Model and TV presenter.
- Deanna Syme, former Indian Athlete, lit the torch for the 1982 Asian Games in New Delhi India
- Ayesha Takia, actress
- Stephen Hector Taylor-Smith, pioneer of "Rocket Mail" in India, and immortalised by a postage stamp.
- Norman Watt-Roy, bassist of Ian Dury & The Blockheads
- Eden Kane, singer - Real name Richard Sarstedt
- Peter Sarstedt, singer and brother of Eden Kane
- Robin Sarstedt, singer and brother of Eden Kane and Peter Sarstedt
- Preity Uupala - Actress, Model and Host
See also 
- Christianity in India
- British Asian
- British Indian
- British Pakistani
- British Bangladeshi
- British Mixed-Race
- Burgher people, Sri Lankan people of partly European ancestry
- Eurasian (mixed ancestry)
- FIBIS - Families In British India Society
- Indo people (similar group in the Dutch East Indies)
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