digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

Map of the approximate maximal extent of the Andronovo culture. The formative Sintashta-Petrovka culture is shown in darker red. The location of the earliest spoke-wheeled chariot finds is indicated in purple. Adjacent and overlapping cultures (Afanasevo culture, Srubna culture, BMAC) are shown in green.
Archaeological cultures associated with Indo-Iranian migrations (after EIEC). The Andronovo, BMAC and Yaz cultures have often been associated with Indo-Iranian migrations. The Swat, Cemetery H, Copper Hoard and PGW cultures are candidates for cultures associated with Indo-Aryan movements.

The Andronovo culture is a collection of similar local Bronze Age cultures that flourished ca. 1800–1400 BCE in western Siberia and the west Asiatic steppe. It is probably better termed an archaeological complex or archaeological horizon. The name derives from the village of Andronovo (55°53′N 55°42′E / 55.883°N 55.700°E / 55.883; 55.700), where in 1914, several graves were discovered, with skeletons in crouched positions, buried with richly decorated pottery. The older Sintashta culture (2100–1800), formerly included within the Andronovo culture, is now considered separately, but regarded as its predecessor, and accepted as part of the wider Andronovo horizon.

Sub-cultures have been distinguished:

  • Alakul (1800–1400 BCE)
  • Fedorovo (1700–1300 BCE)
  • Alekseyevka (1200–1000 BCE)

The geographical extent of the culture is vast and difficult to delineate exactly. On its western fringes, it overlaps with the approximately contemporaneous, but distinct, Srubna culture in the Volga-Ural interfluvial. To the east, it reaches into the Minusinsk depression, with some sites as far west as the southern Ural Mountains,[1] overlapping with the area of the earlier Afanasevo culture.[2] Additional sites are scattered as far south as the Koppet Dag (Turkmenistan), the Pamir (Tajikistan) and the Tian Shan (Kyrgyzstan). The northern boundary vaguely corresponds to the beginning of the Taiga.[1] In the Volga basin, interaction with the Srubna culture was the most intense and prolonged, and Federovo style pottery is found as far west as Volgograd.

Towards the middle of the 2nd millennium, the Andronovo cultures begin to move intensively eastwards. They mined deposits of copper ore in the Altai Mountains and lived in villages of as many as ten sunken log cabin houses measuring up to 30m by 60m in size. Burials were made in stone cists or stone enclosures with buried timber chambers.

In other respects, the economy was pastoral, based on cattle, horses, sheep, and goats.[1] While agricultural use has been posited, no clear evidence has been presented.

Most researchers associate the Andronovo horizon with early Indo-Iranian languages, though it may have overlapped the early Uralic-speaking area at its northern fringe.

Andronovo and Indo-Iranians[edit]

The Andronovo culture is strongly associated with the Indo-Iranians (Aryans) and is often credited with the invention of the spoke-wheeled chariot around 2000 BCE.[3] The Andronovo culture is also notable for regional advances in metallurgy.[1]

Sintashta is a site on the upper Ural River. It is famed for its grave-offerings, particularly chariot burials. These inhumations were in kurgans and included all or parts of animals (horse and dog) deposited into the barrow. Sintashta is often pointed to as the premier proto-Indo-Iranian site, and it is conjectured that the language spoken was still in the Proto-Indo-Iranian stage.[4] There are similar sites "in the Volga-Ural steppe".[5]

The identification of Andronovo as Indo-Iranian has been challenged by scholars who point to the absence of the characteristic timber graves of the steppe south of the Oxus River.[6] Sarianidi (as cited in Bryant 2001:207) states that "direct archaeological data from Bactria and Margiana show without any shade of doubt that Andronovo tribes penetrated to a minimum extent into Bactria and Margianian oases".

Based on its use by Indo-Aryans in Mitanni and Vedic India, its prior absence in the Near East and Harappan India, and its 16th–17th century BCE attestation at the Andronovo site of Sintashta, Kuzmina (1994) argues that the chariot corroborates the identification of Andronovo as Indo-Iranian. Klejn (1974) and Brentjes (1981) find the Andronovo culture much too late for an Indo-Iranian identification since chariot-wielding Aryans appear in Mitanni by the 15th to 16th century BCE. However, Anthony & Vinogradov (1995) dated a chariot burial at Krivoye Lake to around 2000 BCE.[7]

Mallory (as cited in Bryant 2001:216) admits the extraordinary difficulty of making a case for expansions from Andronovo to northern India, and that attempts to link the Indo-Aryans to such sites as the Beshkent and Vakhsh cultures "only gets the Indo-Iranians to Central Asia, but not as far as the seats of the Medes, Persians or Indo-Aryans".

Eugene Helimski has suggested that the Andronovo people spoke a separate branch of the Indo-Iranian group. He claims that borrowings in the Finno-Ugric languages support this view.[8] Vladimir Napolskikh has proposed that borrowings in Finno-Ugric indicate that the language was specifically of the Indo-Aryan type.[9]

Since older forms of Indo-Iranian words have been taken over in Uralic and Proto-Yeniseian, occupation by some other languages (also lost ones) cannot be ruled out altogether, at least for part of the Andronovo area: i. e., Uralic and Yeniseian.[10] The area of the Andronovo culture may also have overlapped the Turkic-speaking area at its northeastern fringe.[11]

In the minority are those that believe in the multiethnic identity of the Andronovo tribes.[12] Thus, V N. Chernetsov (1973) argues for an Ugric substrate among the Andronovo tribes and a specific Indo-Iranian identity for the Alakul tribe.[13] Stokolos (1972), on the other hand, argues for an Ugric identity for the Andronovo, a local development for the Fedorov tribe, and an Indo-Iranian one for the Alakul tribe.[14]

According to Carl C. Lamberg-Karlovsky, from the common roots of the millennia-long Andronovo cultures, processes of both convergence and divergence allow for the presence of not only the Indo-Iranian languages but for other language families as well, that is, Altaic and Uralic,[15] both Proto-Turkic and Proto-Mongolian could reflect a culture like the Andronovo.[16] According to K. Jettmar, some sites show a striking similarity to the Tungusic peoples.[17]

Successors[edit]

In southern Siberia and Kazakhstan, the Andronovo culture was succeeded by the Karasuk culture (1500–800 BCE). On its western border, it is succeeded by the Srubna culture, which partly derives from the Abashevo culture. The earliest historical peoples associated with the area are the Cimmerians and Saka/Scythians, appearing in Assyrian records after the decline of the Alekseyevka culture, migrating into Ukraine from ca. the 9th century BCE (see also Ukrainian stone stela), and across the Caucasus into Anatolia and Assyria in the late 8th century BCE, and possibly also west into Europe as the Thracians (see Thraco-Cimmerian), and the Sigynnae, located by Herodotus beyond the Danube, north of the Thracians, and by Strabo near the Caspian Sea. Both Herodotus and Strabo identify them as Iranian.

Ancient DNA[edit]

Out of 10 human male remains assigned to the Andronovo horizon from the Krasnoyarsk region, 9 possessed the R1a Y-chromosome haplogroup and one the haplogroup C-M130 (xC3). mtDNA haplogroups of nine individuals assigned to the same Andronovo horizon and region were as follows: U4 (2 individuals), U2e, U5a1, Z, T1, T4, H, and K2b.

90% of the Bronze Age period mtDNA haplogroups were of west Eurasian origin and the study determined that at least 60% of the individuals overall (out of the 26 Bronze and Iron Age human remains' samples of the study that could be tested) had light hair and blue or green eyes.[18]

A 2004 study also established that, during the Bronze/Iron Age period, the majority of the population of Kazakhstan (part of the Andronovo culture during Bronze Age), was of west Eurasian origin (with mtDNA haplogroups such as U, H, HV, T, I and W), and that prior to the thirteenth to seventh century BC, all Kazakh samples belonged to European lineages.[19]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Okladnikov, A. P. (1994), "Inner Asia at the dawn of history", The Cambridge history of early Inner Asia, Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Press, p. 83, ISBN 0-521-24304-1 
  2. ^ Mallory 1989:62
  3. ^ Anthony & Vinogradov 1995
  4. ^ Mallory 1989 "The settlement and cemetery of Sintashta, for example, though located far to the north on the Trans-Ural steppe, provides the type of Indo-Iranian archaeological evidence that would more than delight an archaeologist seeking their remains in Iran or India."
  5. ^ Mallory 1997
  6. ^ or south of the region between Kopet Dagh and Pamir-Karakorum. Francfort, in (Fussman et al. 2005, p. 268)
    Fussman, in (Fussman et al. 2005, p. 220)
    Francfort (1989), Fouilles de Shortugai
    Klejn (1974), Lyonnet (1993), Francfort (1989), Bosch-Gimpera (1973), Hiebert (1998), and Sarianidi (1993), as cited in Bryant (2001, ch. 10, pp. 206–207)
  7. ^ Anthony & Vinogradov (1995)
    Kuzmina (1994), Klejn (1974), and Brentjes (1981), as cited in Bryant (2001:206)
  8. ^ Helimski, Eugene. The southern neighbours of Finno-Ugrians: Iranians or an extinct branch of Aryans („Andronovo Aryans“)? – In: Finnisch-ugrische Sprachen in Kontakt. Maastricht, 1997. S. 117–125.
  9. ^ Напольских В. В. Уральско-арийские взаимоотношения: история исследований, новые решения и проблемы // Индоевропейская история в свете новых исследований. М.: МГОУ, 2010. С. 229—242.
  10. ^ [1] M. Witzel – Linguistic Evidence for Cultural Exchange in Prehistoric Western Central Asia, 2003, Sino-Platonic Papers 129
  11. ^ Róna-Tas, András. “The Reconstruction of Proto-Turkic and the Genetic Question.” In: The Turkic Languages, pp. 67-80. 1998.
  12. ^ Edwin Bryant, Laurie L. Patton, The Indo-Aryan Controversy: Evidence and Inference in Indian History, Psychology Press, 2005, p.147
  13. ^ Chernetsov, V N., 1973. "The Ethno-Cultural Regions in the Forest and Subarctic Zones of Eurasia in the Neolithic Period" (in Russian), edited by A, P. Smirnov, Problemv Arkheologi Urala i Sibiri (Archaeology of the Urals and Siberia). Moscow: Nauka, pp. 10-17.
  14. ^ Stokolos, V. S., 1972. Kultura Naseleniia Brvnzovogo Veka luznoeo Zauralia: Khronologii i Periodizatsiia. Moscow: Nauka.
  15. ^ Carl C. Lamberg-Karlovsky, "Archaeology and language: the case of the Bronze Age Indo-Iranians", In "The Indo-Aryan Controversy. Evidence and inference in Indian history Edited by Edwin E Bryant and Laurie L. Patton, 2005, p.170. ISBN 0-700-71462-6, ISBN 0-700-71463-4.
  16. ^ C.C. Lamberg-Karlovsky, "Archaeology and Language: The Indo-Iranians", Harvard University, Current Anthropology Volume 43, Number 1, February 2002, © by The Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, pp.63-84.
  17. ^ K. Jettmar, "The Altai before the Turks", Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities 23 (1951), pp.135-223. In: Gernot Wilhelm, "Akten des IV. Internationalen Kongresses für Hethitologie: Würzburg, 4.-8. Oktober 1999", Issue 45, 2001, p.246.
  18. ^ [2] C. Keyser et al. 2009. Ancient DNA provides new insights into the history of south Siberian Kurgan people. Human Genetics.
  19. ^ [3] C. Lalueza-Fox et al. 2004. Unravelling migrations in the steppe: mitochondrial DNA sequences from ancient central Asians

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andronovo_culture — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
310 videos foundNext > 

The look of the Andronovo culture and people

Facial reconstructions and examples of the material culture of the Andronovo, Sintashta and Arkaim cultural complex (2300-1000 BC). The 3 color photographs s...

Andronovo culture and Arkaim - The first Indo-Iranians

A visual introduction to the first Indo-Iranians, the Andronovo culture, with anthropological reconstructions of Andronovo faces. Their facial type was found...

The fusion of the Scythian people - Subartu, Scythia, Hunnia

The fusion of the Scythian people: + Turkic Scythia (ancient central asian Andronovo culture | 2300-1700 BC) + Turkic Subartu (ancient Middle East | 2000-800...

Ancient Aryan Discovery in Russia

Spiral cities built on remote Russian plains by swastika-painting Aryans Russian archaeologists have unearthed some ancient and virtually unknown settlements...

The Andronovo Culture

Turkics mentioned with Andronovo.

The material culture of the Kurgan cultures

An overview of the material remnants of the cultures associated with the earliest Indo-Europeans - Samara, Yamna, Corded Ware, Boat Axe, Fatyanovo, Balanovo,...

Andronovo kültüründe Türk-Altay ve Hint-Avrupalılar arasında temaslar (Prof. Dr. Celâl Şengör)

Tarihçiler, etnologlar, sanat ve kültür tarihçileri ile dil araştırmacılarının Türklerin anayurdu olarak kabul ettikleri Altay bölgesinde yapılan arkeolojik ...

Proto-Türkic ancestors • Andronovo, Tashtyk, Tagar, Karassuk, Botai

Предки тюрков (Прототюрки) The Proto-Turkic Urheimat & Early Migrations of Turkic Peoples: http://archive.is/Kt533 http://img.archive.is/Kt533/e0e604e8198310...

TURAN

TURANIAN FOLKS: KURGAN CULTURE BCE 5000 CHINA , MESOPOTAMIA BCE 4000-2500 ANDRONOVO CULTURE BCE 2000 SCYTHIANS BCE 1000 SARMATAS BCE 700 HUNS AD 300 ...

Top 10 Largest Cities or Towns of Tajikistan

Thanks for watching.... 1. Dushanbe 2. Khujand 3. Kulob 4. Qurghonteppa 5. Istaravshan 6. Vahdat 7. Konibodom 8. Tursunzoda 9. Isfara 10. Panjakent Music : T...

310 videos foundNext > 

15 news items

 
Tengrinews
Sat, 02 Aug 2014 00:01:21 -0700

"Fragments of three vessels with symbolic images of the sun and parts of the world, characteristic for Aryan [Indo-Iranian] tribes of the Andronovo culture have been discovered at a depth of 45 cm," Serik Iskakov, senior fellow at the Center for ...
 
Russia and India Report
Sat, 25 Oct 2014 13:23:00 -0700

Probably it is a word that comes directly from the ANdronovo culture, the first in absolute Indo-iranian culture that differenciated out of the proto-indoeuropeans ;). Reply · Like. · 2 · Edited · October 28 at 6:47am. Kumar Dipak · Top Commenter ...

iScienceTimes.com

iScienceTimes.com
Sun, 05 Jan 2014 20:45:13 -0800

The Andronovo culture is of great importance in understanding the early history of the Indo-Iranian speaking peoples," according to the center's website. One theory about the Andronovo burial sites in Siberia is that after the man died, his wife was ...
 
Huffington Post
Sat, 04 Jan 2014 05:51:44 -0800

The graves are believed to belong to the Andronovo culture, which existed in the area during the second and first millennia B.C.E., according to Britannica. Yet many of the bodies in the graves are believed to be from the 15th, 16th and 17th Centuries ...

RedOrbit

RedOrbit
Tue, 31 Dec 2013 07:16:52 -0800

Another fact that surprised the archeologists was that the skeletons belonged to the Andronovo culture where cremation was more common than burial. The skeletons also appeared to have been buried together with care, and not hastily, like burials after ...
 
About - News & Issues
Sun, 26 Feb 2012 22:05:52 -0800

... eastward in response to environmental change and the need for increased pastureages. By the Late Bronze Age (ca 1900-1300 BC), so the story goes, the entire steppe was populated by mobile pastoralists, called by archaeologists Andronovo culture.
 
ScienceBlogs (blog)
Tue, 07 Jul 2009 05:26:03 -0700

The Krasnoyarsk samples are of the Andronovo culture. It was noted in the second paper that the samples from later periods, when the Andronovo gave way to successor cultural complexes, the proportion of European ancestry dropped in relation to East ...
 
Discover Magazine (blog)
Fri, 17 Dec 2010 15:03:45 -0800

I lean toward the proposition that they do derive from the Andronovo culture of the Eurasian steppe. This would date the entrance and expansion of Indo-Aryans in northern India 3-4,000 years ago. I also contend that the dominant element of ancestry ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight