digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

This article is about the Tyrolean military hero. For other people, see Andreas Hofer (disambiguation).
Posthumous painting of Andreas Hofer

Andreas Hofer (November 22, 1767 – February 20, 1810) was a Tyrolean innkeeper and drover, who in 1809 became the leader of the Tyrolean Rebellion against the French and Bavarian occupation forces during the War of the Fifth Coalition. He was subsequently captured and executed.

Up to today, Hofer is venerated as a folk hero, freedom fighter and Austrian patriot.

Life[edit]

Sandhof in St. Leonhard where Hofer was born and lived

Andreas Hofer was born 1767 in St. Leonhard in Passeier, in the Habsburg crown land of Tyrol. His father was an innkeeper of the Sandhof inn and Andreas followed in his footsteps when he inherited the establishment. He also traded wine and horses in adjacent Northern Italy and learned the Italian language. He married Anna Ladurner. In 1791 he was elected into the Tyrolean Landtag assembly. In dialectical German he was known as a Wirt (innkeeper) and thus ever after Sandwirt.

In the War of the Third Coalition against the French he became a sharpshooter and later a militia captain in the Austrian Imperial and Royal Army. After the Austrian defeat Tyrol was transferred to the Kingdom of Bavaria (France's ally) according to the 1805 Treaty of Pressburg. During the stern measures of Minister Maximilian von Montgelas and the forced recruitments into the Bavarian Army, Hofer became a leader of the anti-Bavarian movement. In January 1809, he was part of a delegation to Vienna to ask Emperor Francis I of Austria for support for a possible uprising. The Emperor gave his assurances and the delegation returned home.

Hofer begun to secretly organize insurrection, visiting villagers and holding councils of war in local inns. Reputedly he was so much on the move that he signed his messages "Andreas Hofer, from where I am" and letters to him were addressed to "wherever he may be". At the same time other leaders organized their own forces elsewhere in the Alps. Hofer became a leader of a militia contingent in the Passeier Valley.

Armed rebellion begins[edit]

On the eve of the Battle of Bergisel, 1900 painting by Franz Defregger

The Tyrolean Rebellion began on 9 April 1809 in Innsbruck. The previous night organizers dumped sacks of sawdust into the River Inn as a sign to start the rebellion. When the sawdust floated through the town and down the Inn Valley, it alerted the rebels. Church bells summoned men to fight with muskets and farmyard implements. They soon overran smaller Bavarian garrisons and surprised a column of French infantry that was passing through the area.

On April 11 Tyrolean militia defeated a Bavarian force in Sterzing which led to the occupation of Innsbruck before noon. Though French forces came across the Brenner Pass as a relief and a united French-Bavarian contingent counterattacked the next night, the Tyroleans fought them in the First Battle of Bergisel until Hofer and his allies won on the morning of the 13th. While Austrian forces under General Johann Gabriel Chasteler de Courcelles moved into the Tyrolean capital and installed a provisional government led by Joseph Hormayr, Hofer advanced south, taking Bozen and Trent.

Hopes of a successful rebellion waned when Napoleon defeated the Austrian forces of Archduke Charles of Austria in a series of battles of Teugen-Hausen, Abensberg, Eckmühl, and Ratisbon, whereafter the Austrian troops withdrew from Tyrol and Hofer had to pull back to the mountains. The French Marshal François Joseph Lefebvre took charge of the Tyrolean theatre and Bavarian and Saxon forces under the command of Karl Philipp von Wrede on May 13 defeated the Austrians in a bloody skirmish at Wörgl. The Bavarians re-occupied Innsbruck on May 19, however, when their French allies left, the rebellion flared again.

Hofer takes command[edit]

Painting depicting Hofer and his troops liberating his people from foreign occupation

Hofer became the effective commander-in-chief of the Tyrolean rebels, with the support of other leaders like Josef Speckbacher and Father Joachim Haspinger. He commanded a force of Tyroleans approximately 20,000 strong, together with a couple of hundred Austrian soldiers who had joined them after the retreat of the Austrian army.

In the second Battle of Bergisel from May 25 to May 29, 1809 Hofer's troops again defeated the Bavarians and drove them out of the country. Hofer's troops retook Innsbruck on May 30. On May 29 Hofer received a letter from Emperor Francis in which he promised not to sign any peace treaty that would include giving up Tyrol. An Austrian intendant came to rule Tyrol and Hofer returned to his home. However, Napoleon again defeated Austrian troops in the Battle of Wagram on July 6. The Armistice of Znaim ceded Tyrol to Bavaria again. Napoleon sent 40,000 French and Bavarian troops to take over Tyrol and they re-occupied Innsbruck.

After little hesitation, Hofer joined battle again. The French offered a reward for his head. On August 13–14, his Tyroleans defeated the French troops of Marshal François Joseph Lefebvre, in the third of the Battles of Bergisel, in a 12-hour battle after a downhill charge. The Tyroleans retook Innsbruck.

Hofer declared himself Imperial Commandant of the Tyrol in the absence of the ruler and for two months ruled the land from Hofburg in the name of the Emperor of Austria. He announced new laws and taxes and minted his own coins. He also sent two men to Britain to ask for assistance. On September 29 he received a medal from the emperor and another promise that Austria would not abandon Tyrol.

Hofer's hopes were dashed on October 14 when the Treaty of Schönbrunn again ceded Tyrol to Bavaria. French and Bavarian troops advanced and Hofer retreated to the mountains. Promised amnesty, Hofer and his followers laid down their weapons November 8. Hofer retreated to his home valley.

Final attempt and capture[edit]

On November 12, Hofer received false reports of Austrian victories and tried to summon his troops on November 15. This time he had little following and French troops defeated his forces. His subordinate commanders surrendered and asked him to escape over the mountains.

Hofer hid in a hut in the mountains in the Passeiertal and the French announced a reward of 1500 guilders for his head. His neighbor Franz Raffl betrayed him and revealed his hiding place to the authorities; Hofer was captured by Italian troops on January 19, 1810. He was sent to Mantua in chains to face a court martial. Raffl died impoverished in Bavaria 20 years later.

Hofer's execution in Mantua

Court martial and execution[edit]

Officers holding the court martial disagreed on the exact sentence until they received a message from Milan. It was supposedly from the Viceroy, transmitting Napoleon's order to "give him a fair trial and then shoot him." Later Napoleon claimed to Prince Metternich that Hofer was executed against his wishes.

Andreas Hofer was executed by a firing squad on February 20, 1810. He refused a blindfold or to kneel, and gave money to a corporal in charge, telling him to "shoot straight". He gave the order to fire himself. [1] Hofer became a martyr in Germany and Austria and a rallying point against the power of Napoleon.

Legacy and monuments[edit]

Andreas Hofer monument at Bergisel near Innsbruck

In 1818, his family was given a patent of nobility by the emperor of Austria (he and Anna had 17 children, at least two of whom emigrated to America). In 1823, Hofer's remains were moved from Mantua to Innsbruck, and in 1834, his tomb was decorated with a marble statue. In 1893, a bronze statue of Hofer was erected in Bergisel (Innsbruck). There is a large painting depicting his arrest which hangs in the Palace of Maria Theresa in Innsbruck. There is an annual open-air play in Meran based on his life.

The song Zu Mantua in Banden (today the anthem of the State of Tyrol) tells the story of his tragic fate and execution. His most famous quote: I will not trade my life for a lie

The 1929 German silent film Andreas Hofer is a biopic of his life. Hofer was played by Fritz Greiner.

Literature[edit]

Sources[edit]

  • Tom Pocock - Stopping Napoleon (2004)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tom Pocock. Stopping Napoleon: War and Intrigue in the Mediterranean (Kindle Locations 2357-2359). Thistle Publishing. Kindle Edition.

External links[edit]

Media related to Andreas Hofer at Wikimedia Commons


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andreas_Hofer — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
24167 videos foundNext > 

Tobias Moretti dans "Andreas Hofer, die Freiheit des Adlers"

Zu Mantua in Banden (Andreas Hofer-Lied)

Mit ihm sein Land Tirol.

Psayrer - Andreas Hofer der Schrei des Adlers 2010

Psayrer - Andreas Hofer der Schrei des Adlers 2010 (mit Bildern vom Passaiertal in Südtirol) Es war einmal vor langer langer Zeit im heiligen Land Tirol Die ...

1809 Andreas Hofer - Die Freiheit des Adlers Kino Trailer

1805 siegt Napoleon in der Schlacht bei Austerlitz über die Truppen Russlands und Österreichs. Als Folge der Niederlage muss Österreich Tirol abtreten, das d...

Ursprung Buam - 1809er Marsch (Andreas Hofer Marsch)

Ursprung Buam - 1809er Marsch (Andreas Hofer Marsch).

Andreas Hofer Lied

www.bierpruegel.com.

ANDREAS HOFER (Version 2009) - Die Psayrer

ANDREAS HOFER (Version 2009) - Die Psayrer.

ANDREAS HOFER - TRENTINO / WELSCHTIROL

Canzone trentina sulla morte di Andreas Hofer (Capitàn Barbón). TIROLO UNITO DA KUFSTEIN A BORGHETTO! EIN TIROL VON KUFSTEIN BIS BORGHETTO! PORTA GIULIA [ Tr...

Bürgermusikkapelle Höfen - Andreas Hofer Marsch

Bürgermusikkapelle Höfen - Andreas Hofer Marsch.

Andreas Hofer Lied

Lyrics: Zu Mantua in Banden Der treue Hofer war, In Mantua zum Tode Führt ihn der Feinde Schar. Es blutete der Brüder Herz, Ganz Deutschland, ach, in Schma...

24167 videos foundNext > 

188 news items

Spectator.co.uk

Spectator.co.uk
Wed, 01 Oct 2014 20:26:56 -0700

... the massacre of the Ottoman garrison on the beach near Jaffa, the execution of Andreas Hofer, the flight from Egypt, the abandonment of his army on the retreat from Russia, the ditching of his wife — was played out in the full blaze of the world's ...

NewsWalk.info (Pressemitteilung)

Ad-Hoc-News (Pressemitteilung)
Tue, 23 Sep 2014 17:32:19 -0700

24.09.14 | 01:58 Uhr | 9 mal gelesen | So gefunden auf meinbezirk.at Hotel Andreas Hofer Kufstein Wir suchen für die kommende Wintersaison (aber auch für Ganzjahresanstellung) Receptionist/in mit Praxis Küchenchef Koch/Köchin Servierhilfe (nur mit ...
 
Ad-Hoc-News (Pressemitteilung)
Thu, 23 Oct 2014 02:11:15 -0700

Oktober bis Samstag, den 1. November 2014 werden im Stadtgebiet von Innsbruck wieder Schienenschleifarbeiten entlang der IVB-Tramlinien 1 und 3 ausgeführt. Die Schleifarbeiten an den Geleisen in der Andreas-Hofer-Straße sowie in der Bürgerstraße ...

Westfälische Nachrichten

Westfälische Nachrichten
Wed, 22 Oct 2014 10:24:09 -0700

Eine zweite städtische Gesamtschule soll schnellstmöglich an der Andreas-Hofer-Straße realisiert werden. Ziel ist es, dass an allen Schulen inklusiv unterrichtet wird. Die Kindertagesbetreuung soll weiter ausgebaut werden, gerade auch in den Randzeiten.

Bayerischer Rundfunk

Bayerischer Rundfunk
Wed, 22 Oct 2014 06:17:38 -0700

In dem historischen Gebäude trafen sich laut italienischem Inlandsgeheimdienst bekennende Neonazis zu sogenannten "Andreas-Hofer-Wander- und Vortragswochen" - und zwar Kameraden aus Südtirol und aus Deutschland, insbesondere aus Bayern.

unsertirol24

unsertirol24
Tue, 21 Oct 2014 17:22:30 -0700

Kanonikus Michael Gamper und sein Freundeskreis vom DV und dem Andreas Hofer-Bund (AHB) hingegen waren überzeugt, dass man im Lande bleiben und auf eine Änderung der Verhältnisse hoffen müsse. Die emotionalen Auseinandersetzungen ...

Westfälische Nachrichten

Westfälische Nachrichten
Tue, 14 Oct 2014 10:19:13 -0700

Bei Eintreffen der Feuerwehr an der Andreas Hofer Straße drang aus den Kellerräumen der Oberfinanzdirektion ein stechender Geruch. Um keine Menschen zu gefährden, wurden alle rund 350 Mitarbeiter aufgefordert, das Gebäude unverzüglich zu ...
 
Alto Adige
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 18:07:30 -0700

La riapertura al traffico della rotatoria attorno al monumento di Andreas Hofer comporta variazioni anche per il servizio di trasporto pubblico gestito dalla Sasa. A partire da oggi questa è la prima e più evidente conseguenza, il capolinea del bus ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!