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For the town in Victoria, Australia, see Amphitheatre, Victoria.
Arles Amphitheatre, a Roman arena in Arles, France, still in use today[1] for bullfighting, plays and summer concerts.

An amphitheatre or amphitheater /ˈæmfɨˌθətər/[2][3] is an open-air venue used for entertainment, performances, and sports. The term derives from the ancient Greek ἀμφιθέατρον (amphitheatron),[4] from ἀμφί (amphi), meaning "on both sides" or "around"[5] and θέατρον (théātron), meaning "place for viewing".[6][7]

Ancient Greek theatres were built in a semicircle, with tiered seating above a performance area. Ancient Roman amphitheatres were oval or circular in plan, with seating tiers that surrounded the central performance area, like a modern open-air stadium. Modern usage for "amphitheater" is lax, and does not always respect the ancient usage, and so the word can be found describing theatre-style stages with the audience only on one side, theatres in the round, and stadiums. Natural formations shaped like man-made theatres are sometimes known as natural amphitheatres. The three largest Roman amphitheatres (in the original sense) in the world in order of size are the Colosseum, the Amphitheatre Campania and the Amphitheatre of El Djem.[citation needed]

Roman amphitheatres[edit]

Main article: Roman amphitheatre
Interior of the Colosseum

Ancient Roman amphitheatres were major public venues, circular or oval in shape, and used for events such as gladiator combats, chariot races, venationes (animal slayings) and executions. About 230 Roman amphitheatres have been found across the area of the Roman Empire. Their typical shape, functions and name distinguish them from Roman theatres, which are more or less semicircular in shape; from the circuses (akin to hippodromes) whose much longer circuits were designed mainly for horse or chariot racing events; and from the smaller stadia, which were primarily designed for athletics and footraces.[8]

The earliest Roman amphitheatres date from the middle of the first century BC, but most were built under Imperial rule, from the Augustan period (27 BC–14 AD) onwards.[9] Imperial amphitheatres were built throughout the Roman empire; the largest could accommodate 40,000–60,000 spectators, and the most elaborate featured multi-storeyed, arcaded façades and were elaborately decorated with marble, stucco and statuary.[10] After the end of gladiatorial games in the 5th century and of animal killings in the sixth, most amphitheatres fell into disrepair, and their materials were mined or recycled. Some were razed, and others converted into fortifications. A few continued as convenient open meeting places; in some of these, churches were sited.[11]

Contemporary amphitheatres[edit]

A contemporary amphitheatre, in the sense in which the word has come to be popularly used now, is a curved, acoustically vibrant performance space, particularly one located outdoors. Contemporary amphitheatres often include standing structures, called bandshells, sometimes curved or bowl-shaped, both behind the stage and behind the audience, creating an area which echoes or amplifies sound, making the amphitheatre ideal for musical or theatrical performances. Most are semicircular in shape, so they should not properly be called amphitheatres, but nevertheless this usage has become common.

Notable modern amphitheatres include the Shoreline Amphitheatre and the Hollywood Bowl. The term "amphitheatre" is also used (completely incorrectly in this case) for some indoor venues such as the Gibson Amphitheatre.

Natural amphitheatres[edit]

Bryce Canyon Amphitheatre from Sunrise Point

A natural amphitheatre is a performance space located in a spot where a steep mountain or a particular rock formation naturally amplifies or echoes sound, making it ideal for musical and theatrical performances. The term amphitheatre can also be used to describe naturally occurring formations which would be ideal for this purpose, even if no theatre has been constructed there.

Notable natural amphitheatres include the Drakensberg amphitheatre in Drakensberg, South Africa, Slane Castle in Ireland, the Supernatural Amphitheatre in Victoria, Australia, and Echo amphitheatre, Red Rocks Amphitheatre in Morrison, Colorado and The Gorge Amphitheatre in Washington State, United States.

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Michel Tournier, Le coq de bruyère, W. D. Redfern, Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press, 1996, p. 69
  2. ^ New Oxford American Dictionary (Third ed.). Oxford University Press. 2010. 
  3. ^ Amphitheatre. "Definition of Amphitheatre in Oxford dictionary. Meaning, pronunciation and origin of the word". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014. 
  4. ^ ἀμφιθέατρον, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, '56'An Intermediate Greek-English Lexicon, on Peseus
  5. ^ ἀμφί, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  6. ^ θέατρον, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
  7. ^ Hoad, T.F. (1996). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. Oxford University Press. pp. 14, 489. ISBN 0-19-283098-8. 
  8. ^ Bomgardner, 37.
  9. ^ Bomgardner, 59.
  10. ^ Bomgardner, 62.
  11. ^ Bomgardner, 201–223.

References[edit]

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphitheatre — Please support Wikipedia.
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Phoenix New Times
Mon, 01 Sep 2014 19:37:30 -0700

Inside the Amphitheatre, the sweltering Arizona heat could not be kept at bay, and there was a surprising, calm silence. Finally, singer Dexter Holland, with everyone in tow, could be seen taking their platforms through the blue and white stage lights ...

KTVB

The Oregonian - OregonLive.com
Fri, 29 Aug 2014 10:15:00 -0700

The Grant County commissioners have approved a zoning change that opens the door for The Gorge Amphitheatre to expand. Live Nation, which owns The Gorge, still needs to obtain additional approval from the county's planning department. The Columbia ...

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SFGate (blog)
Sat, 23 Aug 2014 09:52:18 -0700

A 38-year-old man died early Saturday morning after he was shot multiple times during a Wiz Khalifa concert at Shoreline Amphitheatre on Friday night, according to the Mountain View Police. The victim, a black male who was not immediately identified ...

Philly.com

San Jose Mercury News
Tue, 26 Aug 2014 18:42:53 -0700

He had performed at Shoreline Amphitheatre in Mountain View on Friday night when Eric Johnson, a 38-year-old man from Orinda, was shot to death backstage, according to Mountain View police. Police obtained search warrants at the Irvine venue for ...
 
Reverb (blog)
Wed, 27 Aug 2014 13:52:54 -0700

Through walls of wind, rain and what could have been debris from Dorothy's house bodies climbed the hills to Red Rocks Amphitheatre on Tuesday to see the calm and collected cool of John Legend. Gates opened at 6 p.m. and the storms progressively got ...
 
Evansville Courier & Press
Sat, 30 Aug 2014 05:39:30 -0700

EVANSVILLE - Mesker Park Zoo is planning to move and store roughly 5,000 chairs from Roberts Stadium in an empty storage room beneath the stage of the defunct Mesker Amphitheatre. The moving project will begin sometime in 2015, pending budget ...
 
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Thu, 21 Aug 2014 05:01:02 -0700

The ever-intriguing Wiz Khalifa is on the road supporting his fifth studio album, "Blacc Hollywood," and performs Friday at the Shoreline Amphitheatre in Mountain View. The Pittsburgh rapper, who is best known for the Steelers friendly anthem "Black ...
 
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Sun, 24 Aug 2014 07:03:45 -0700

Nearly 400,000 people attended concerts at the Gorge Amphitheatre in 2013, generating $4.6 million in state and local taxes, according to an economic study created by the owners as they seek to expand the scenic venue. The Gorge is on a cliff above the ...
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