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Amami Ōshima
Native name: 奄美大島, Amami Ōshima
Nickname: Uushima
Naze port2.JPG
Naze Port on Amami Ōshima
Satsunan Islands.png
Geography
Location East China Sea
Coordinates 28°19′35″N 129°22′29″E / 28.32639°N 129.37472°E / 28.32639; 129.37472Coordinates: 28°19′35″N 129°22′29″E / 28.32639°N 129.37472°E / 28.32639; 129.37472
Archipelago Amami Islands
Area 712.39 km2 (275.06 sq mi)
Coastline 461.1 km (286.51 mi)
Highest elevation 694 m (2,277 ft)
Highest point Yuwandake
Country
Prefectures Kagoshima Prefecture
District Ōshima District
Largest city Amami (pop. 44,561)
Demographics
Population 73,000 (as of 2013)
Ethnic groups Japanese

Amami Ōshima (奄美大島?, Okinawan: Uushima (ウーシマ?); Amami: Ushima (ウシマ?)) is one of the Satsunan Islands, and is the largest island within the Amami archipelago between Kyūshū and Okinawa.[1]

The island, 712.35  km² in area, has a population of approximately 73,000 people. Administratively it is divided into the city of Amami, the towns of Tatsugō, Setouchi, and the villages of Uken and Yamato in Kagoshima Prefecture. Much of the island is within the borders of the Amami Guntō Quasi-National Park.

Geography[edit]

Amami Ōshima is the seventh largest island in the Japanese archipelago (excluding the disputed Kurile Islands) after the four main islands, Okinawa Island and Sado Island. It is located approximately 380 kilometres (210 nmi) south of the southern tip of Kyūshū and 250 kilometres (130 nmi) north of Okinawa. The island is of volcanic origin, with Mount Yuwanda at 605 metres (1,985 ft) above sea level at its highest peak. The coast of the island is surrounded by a coral reef. It is surrounded by the East China Sea on the west and the Pacific Ocean on the east.

The climate of Amami Ōshima is classified as has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) with very warm summers and mild winters. The rainy season lasts from May through September. The island is subject to frequent typhoons.

Fauna[edit]

Amami Ōshima is home to several rare or endangered endemic animals, including the Amami Rabbit and the Lidth's Jay, both of which are now found only in Amami Ōshima and Tokunoshima. The Amami rabbit is sometimes called a living fossil because it represents an ancient Asian lineage that has elsewhere disappeared.

The island is also home to the habu, a venomous snake that can be found throughout the Ryūkyū Islands. Mongooses were introduced to kill the habu, but have become another problem, as an increase in the mongoose population has been linked to the decline of the Amami rabbit and other endemic species.[2]

Whale Watching to target Humpback Whales has become one of featured attractions in winter in recent years, with tourism associations specialized for whale-watching have founded.[3] It is also notable that North Pacific Right Whale, the most endangered of all whale species have repeatedly appeared around the island[4][5] (there are 5 records of 3 sightings, a capture, and a strandings since in 1901) and Amami is the only location in East China Sea where this species have been confirmed at least in the past century, and is also one of two locations in the world among with Bonin Islands where constant appearance in winter have been confirmed since in the 20th century. Discovery of Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphins in Seto strait made it the first confirmation in the nation.

Historically, the island was the world's northernmost of Dugongs' distributions. These sea cows are now facing functional extinct, but there was a record of a single Dugong stayed for a short period in Kasari bay in the 2000s.

Amami Oshima is the only place where a nesting of Leatherback Turtle was seen in Japan.

History[edit]

It is uncertain when Amami Ōshima was first settled. Stone tools indicate settlement in the Japanese Paleolithic period, and other artifacts, including pottery, indicate a constant contact with Jomon, Yayoi and Kofun period Japan.

The island is mentioned in the ancient Japanese chronicle Nihon Shoki in an entry for the year 657 AD. During the Nara period and early Heian period it was a stopping place for envoys from Japan to the court of Tang dynasty China. Mother of pearl was an important export item to Japan. Until 1624, Amami Ōshima was part of the Ryukyu Kingdom. The island was invaded by samurai from Shimazu clan in 1609 and its incorporation into the official holdings of that domain was recognized by the Tokugawa shogunate in 1624. Shimazu rule was harsh, with the inhabitants of the island reduced to serfdom and forced to raise sugar cane to meet high taxation, which often resulted in famine. Saigo Takamori was exiled to Amami Ōshima in 1859, staying for two years, and his house has been preserved as a memorial museum. After the Meiji Restoration Amami Ōshima was incorporated into Ōsumi Province and later became part of Kagoshima Prefecture. Following World War II, although with the other Amami Islands, it was occupied by the United States until 1953, at which time it reverted to the control of Japan.

Since February 1974, the sea around and some parts of the island, a protected area in about 7.8 acres large national park "Amami Gunto Quasi-National Park".[6] The area also has a large mangrove forest.

Economy[edit]

The economy of Amami Ōshima is based on agriculture (sugar cane, rice and sweet potatoes), commercial fishing, and the distillation of shōchū. The favorable climate allows for two rice crops a year. Seasonal tourism is also an important part of the economy. The traditional crafts include the production of high quality hand-crafted silk, which has, however, suffered from the abandonment of traditional Japanese clothing and competition from overseas.

Transportation[edit]

The port of Naze, located in the city of Amami is a major regional shipping and ferry hub. Amami Airport, located in Amami, is connected to Tokyo, Osaka, Naha and Kagoshima as well as local flights to the other Amami islands.

Language[edit]

Main article: Amami language

Two dialects of the Amami language are spoken in Amami Ōshima: the Northern Ōshima dialect and the Southern Ōshima dialect. These dialects are part of the Ryukyuan languages group. According to Ethnologue, as of 2004 there were about 10,000 speakers of the Northern Ōshima dialect and about 1,800 speakers of the Southern Ōshima dialect. These dialects are now spoken mostly by older residents of the island, while most of the younger generations are monolingual in Japanese. The Amami language, including the Ōshima dialects, is classified as endangered by UNESCO.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Teikoku's Complete Atlas of Japan, Teikoku-Shoin Co., Ltd., Tokyo, ISBN 4-8071-0004-1
  2. ^ Watari Y, Yamada F, Sugimura K, Takatsuki S. 2006. Direct and indirect effects of an alien mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) on the native animal community on Amami-Oshima Island, southern Japan, as inferred from distribution patterns of animals.
  3. ^ Oki K., 2014. Amami whale and dolphin association. retrieved on 28-05-2014
  4. ^ Ito H., 2014. Endangered whale captured on film off Amami-Oshima. The Asahi Shimbun. retrieved on 28-05-2014
  5. ^ Oki K., 2014.1/28 セミクジラ!!!!. 奄美大島撮影日記. retrieved on 28-05-2014
  6. ^ http://www.env.go.jp/en/nature/nps/parks_list.html
  • Eldridge, Mark. The Return of the Amami Islands: The Reversion Movement and U.S.-Japan Relations. Levington Books (2004) ISBN 0739107100
  • Hellyer. Robert. Defining Engagement: Japan and Global Contexts, 1640-1868. Harvard University Press (2009) ISBN 0674035771
  • Turnbull, Stephen. The Most Daring Raid of the Samurai. Rosen Publishing Group (2011) ISBN 978-1448818723
  • Ravina, Mark. The Last Samurai: The Life and Battles of Saigo Takamori. Whiley (2011) ISBN 1118045564
  • Yeo, Andrew. Activists, Alliances, and Anti-U.S. Base Protests. Cambridge University Press. (2011) ISBN 1107002478

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amami_Ōshima — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.

81 news items

Science Codex

Science Codex
Tue, 14 Oct 2014 06:30:00 -0700

The once-powerful Category 5 Typhoon Vongfong has fortunately weakened to a barely Category 1 typhoon as it approaches the big islands of Japan. NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite and NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Vongfong on Oct. 11 and ...

The Daily Star

The Daily Star
Thu, 16 Oct 2014 11:00:43 -0700

“Still the Water” is set – a bit of nosing around reveals – in Amami Oshima, a semi-tropical island idyll south of the Japanese mainland. The film opens with gale-force winds and tidal waves battering the coast, the first of two typhoons to play a ...

Stars and Stripes (blog)

Stars and Stripes (blog)
Wed, 08 Oct 2014 20:48:43 -0700

But Okinawa will still feel Vongfong's effects over the weekend and into Monday, in what appears to be a slight zig-zag walk, a bit west toward Amami Oshima passing 122 miles northeast of Kadena at about 6 a.m. Sunday, then slightly back east toward ...

The Japan News

The Japan News
Sun, 12 Oct 2014 05:00:00 -0700

As of 3 p.m. Sunday, the typhoon was traveling north at a speed of 20 kilometers per hour at a point about 240 kilometers west of Kagoshima Prefecture's Amami-Oshima Island. The storm has a central atmospheric pressure of 965 hectopascals, with a ...

Wall Street Journal (blog)

Wall Street Journal (blog)
Fri, 03 Oct 2014 01:03:45 -0700

It will be approximately 210 kilometers (130 miles) east of Amami Oshima island by Sunday morning and continue northeast later in the day. Japan Weather Association, a private weather forecasting company, said Tokyo and the east Japan region could see ...
 
Stars and Stripes (blog)
Sun, 05 Oct 2014 21:41:15 -0700

10:45 a.m. Wednesday, Oct. 8, Japan time: The numbers are staggering. Typhoon Haiyan, at 185-mph sustained winds, was the strongest ever recorded when it made landfall over the central Philippines last November. Super Typhoon Vongfong's ...

veja.com

veja.com
Mon, 20 Oct 2014 05:11:15 -0700

Num dia de festejos tradicionais na ilha japonesa de Amami-Oshima, Kaito encontra um corpo boiando no mar revolto. Instrospectivo e não muito feliz, o adolescente se torna ainda mais fechado depois desse acontecimento. Este é ponto de partida de O ...

La Nación Costa Rica

La Jornada en linea
Sat, 11 Oct 2014 20:33:45 -0700

A las 10:00 horas (01:00 GMT), el ojo de la tormenta se encontraba a 220 kilómetros al oeste de la isla Amami Oshima y se dirigía en dirección nor-noroeste a una velocidad de 20 kilómetros por hora, indicó la agencia. El tifón registra vientos máximos ...
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