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Amami Ōshima
Native name: 奄美大島, Amami Ōshima
Nickname: Uushima
Naze port2.JPG
Naze Port on Amami Ōshima
Satsunan Islands.png
Geography
Location East China Sea
Coordinates 28°19′35″N 129°22′29″E / 28.32639°N 129.37472°E / 28.32639; 129.37472Coordinates: 28°19′35″N 129°22′29″E / 28.32639°N 129.37472°E / 28.32639; 129.37472
Archipelago Amami Islands
Area 712.39 km2 (275.06 sq mi)
Coastline 461.1 km (286.51 mi)
Highest elevation 694 m (2,277 ft)
Highest point Yuwandake
Country
Prefectures Kagoshima Prefecture
District Ōshima District
Largest settlement Amami (pop. 44,561)
Demographics
Population 73,000 (as of 2013)
Ethnic groups Japanese

Amami Ōshima (奄美大島?, Okinawan: Uushima (ウーシマ?); Amami: Ushima (ウシマ?)) is one of the Satsunan Islands, and is the largest island within the Amami archipelago between Kyūshū and Okinawa.[1]

The island, 712.35  km² in area, has a population of approximately 73,000 people. Administratively it is divided into the city of Amami, the towns of Tatsugō, Setouchi, and the villages of Uken and Yamato in Kagoshima Prefecture. Much of the island is within the borders of the Amami Guntō Quasi-National Park.

Geography[edit]

Amami Ōshima is the seventh largest island in the Japanese archipelago (excluding the disputed Kurile Islands) after the four main islands, Okinawa Island and Sado Island. It is located approximately 380 kilometres (210 nmi) south of the southern tip of Kyūshū and 250 kilometres (130 nmi) north of Okinawa. The island is of volcanic origin, with Mount Yuwanda at 605 metres (1,985 ft) above sea level at its highest peak. The coast of the island is surrounded by a coral reef. It is surrounded by the East China Sea on the west and the Pacific Ocean on the east.

The climate of Amami Ōshima is classified as has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) with very warm summers and mild winters. The rainy season lasts from May through September. The island is subject to frequent typhoons.

Fauna[edit]

Amami Ōshima is home to several rare or endangered endemic animals, including the Amami Rabbit and the Lidth's Jay, both of which are now found only in Amami Ōshima and Tokunoshima. The Amami rabbit is sometimes called a living fossil because it represents an ancient Asian lineage that has elsewhere disappeared.

The island is also home to the habu, a venomous snake that can be found throughout the Ryūkyū Islands. Mongooses were introduced to kill the habu, but have become another problem, as an increase in the mongoose population has been linked to the decline of the Amami rabbit and other endemic species.[2]

Whale Watching to target Humpback Whales has become one of featured attractions in winter in recent years, with tourism associations specialized for whale-watching have founded.[3] It is also notable that North Pacific Right Whale, the most endangered of all whale species have repeatedly appeared around the island[4][5] (there are 5 records of 3 sightings, a capture, and a strandings since in 1901) and as of 2014, Amami is the only location in East China Sea where this species have been confirmed at least in the past 110 and more years, and is also one of two locations in the world among with Bonin Islands where constant appearance in winter have been confirmed since in the 20th century. Discovery of Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphins in Seto strait made it the first confirmation in the nation. Other species include whales (Bryde's, Sperm), smaller whales or dolphins (False Killer, Spinner, Spotted), and so on. Before being wiped out, many large whales such as Blue, Fin were seasonal migrants as well.[6]

Historically, the island was the world's northernmost of Dugongs' distributions. These sea cows are now facing functional extinct, but there was a record of a single Dugong stayed for a short period in Kasari bay in the 2000s.

Amami Oshima is the only place where a nesting of Leatherback Turtle was seen in Japan.

History[edit]

It is uncertain when Amami Ōshima was first settled. Stone tools indicate settlement in the Japanese Paleolithic period, and other artifacts, including pottery, indicate a constant contact with Jomon, Yayoi and Kofun period Japan.

The island is mentioned in the ancient Japanese chronicle Nihon Shoki in an entry for the year 657 AD. During the Nara period and early Heian period it was a stopping place for envoys from Japan to the court of Tang dynasty China. Mother of pearl was an important export item to Japan. Until 1624, Amami Ōshima was part of the Ryukyu Kingdom. The island was invaded by samurai from Shimazu clan in 1609 and its incorporation into the official holdings of that domain was recognized by the Tokugawa shogunate in 1624. Shimazu rule was harsh, with the inhabitants of the island reduced to serfdom and forced to raise sugar cane to meet high taxation, which often resulted in famine. Saigo Takamori was exiled to Amami Ōshima in 1859, staying for two years, and his house has been preserved as a memorial museum. After the Meiji Restoration Amami Ōshima was incorporated into Ōsumi Province and later became part of Kagoshima Prefecture. Following World War II, although with the other Amami Islands, it was occupied by the United States until 1953, at which time it reverted to the control of Japan.

Since February 1974, the sea around and some parts of the island, a protected area in about 7.8 acres (3 ha) large national park "Amami Gunto Quasi-National Park".[7] The area also has a large mangrove forest.

Economy[edit]

The economy of Amami Ōshima is based on agriculture (sugar cane, rice and sweet potatoes), commercial fishing, and the distillation of shōchū. The favorable climate allows for two rice crops a year. Seasonal tourism is also an important part of the economy. The traditional crafts include the production of high quality hand-crafted silk, which has, however, suffered from the abandonment of traditional Japanese clothing and competition from overseas.

Transportation[edit]

The port of Naze, located in the city of Amami is a major regional shipping and ferry hub. Amami Airport, located in Amami, is connected to Tokyo, Osaka, Naha and Kagoshima as well as local flights to the other Amami islands.

Language[edit]

Main article: Amami language

Two dialects of the Amami language are spoken in Amami Ōshima: the Northern Ōshima dialect and the Southern Ōshima dialect. These dialects are part of the Ryukyuan languages group. According to Ethnologue, as of 2004 there were about 10,000 speakers of the Northern Ōshima dialect and about 1,800 speakers of the Southern Ōshima dialect. These dialects are now spoken mostly by older residents of the island, while most of the younger generations are monolingual in Japanese. The Amami language, including the Ōshima dialects, is classified as endangered by UNESCO.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Teikoku's Complete Atlas of Japan, Teikoku-Shoin Co., Ltd., Tokyo, ISBN 4-8071-0004-1
  2. ^ Watari Y, Yamada F, Sugimura K, Takatsuki S. 2006. Direct and indirect effects of an alien mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) on the native animal community on Amami-Oshima Island, southern Japan, as inferred from distribution patterns of animals.
  3. ^ Oki K., 2014. Amami whale and dolphin association. retrieved on 28-05-2014
  4. ^ Ito H., 2014. Endangered whale captured on film off Amami-Oshima. The Asahi Shimbun. retrieved on 28-05-2014
  5. ^ Oki K., 2014.1/28 セミクジラ!!!!. 奄美大島撮影日記. retrieved on 28-05-2014
  6. ^ Miyazaki N., Nakayama K. (1989). "Records of Cetaceans in the Waters of the Amami Island" (PDF). 国立科学博物館専報 22, 235-249, 1989. National Museum of Nature and Science, Museum of History and Folklore in Kasari. p. CiNii. Retrieved 2015-01-12. 
  7. ^ http://www.env.go.jp/en/nature/nps/parks_list.html
  • Eldridge, Mark. The Return of the Amami Islands: The Reversion Movement and U.S.-Japan Relations. Levington Books (2004) ISBN 0739107100
  • Hellyer. Robert. Defining Engagement: Japan and Global Contexts, 1640-1868. Harvard University Press (2009) ISBN 0674035771
  • Turnbull, Stephen. The Most Daring Raid of the Samurai. Rosen Publishing Group (2011) ISBN 978-1448818723
  • Ravina, Mark. The Last Samurai: The Life and Battles of Saigo Takamori. Whiley (2011) ISBN 1118045564
  • Yeo, Andrew. Activists, Alliances, and Anti-U.S. Base Protests. Cambridge University Press. (2011) ISBN 1107002478

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amami_Ōshima — Please support Wikipedia.
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378 news items

 
Asahi Shimbun
Sun, 15 Mar 2015 10:00:07 -0700

Municipal authorities in Amami-Oshima Island, Kagoshima Prefecture, spent years lobbying for a Ground Self-Defense Force facility, arguing that a troop presence will prop up the local economy, reverse the declining population and provide skilled ...

New York Times

New York Times
Mon, 09 Feb 2015 17:17:12 -0800

AMAMI OSHIMA, Japan — Kazuhiko Kanai uses the traditional method to dye the elegant kimonos for which this small, semitropical island is renowned: he carries a bundle of pure white silk to a nearby rice paddy and hurls it into the mud. Mr. Kanai is ...

The Australian Financial Review

The Australian Financial Review
Sun, 15 Mar 2015 11:30:51 -0700

Amami Oshima has fallen harder than most of Japan's famous kimono production centres, dragged down by a complex web of wholesalers, dealers and specialised retailers who distribute and sell the island's kimonos. While this antiquated system once ...

Designboom

Designboom
Mon, 27 Oct 2014 10:22:30 -0700

on the island of amami ōshima, 380 kilometers from japan's mainland, matsuyama architects and associates has designed a single storey concrete residence that provides living accommodation for a family of five. located in a relatively populated area ...

Science Codex

Science Codex
Tue, 14 Oct 2014 06:30:00 -0700

The once-powerful Category 5 Typhoon Vongfong has fortunately weakened to a barely Category 1 typhoon as it approaches the big islands of Japan. NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite and NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Vongfong on Oct. 11 and ...

WantChinaTimes

WantChinaTimes
Tue, 03 Mar 2015 23:18:44 -0800

A People's Liberation Army guided-missile destroyer and a guided-missile frigate were detected near Amami Oshima, the largest island of Amami archipelago located between the Japanese islands of Okinawa and Kyushu on the morning of Mar. 2, reports ...
 
Divernet
Wed, 25 Feb 2015 10:33:45 -0800

One of the most memorable TV sequences of 2014 was the amorous Japanese pufferfish building intricate sandcastles to attract mates in the BBC's Life Story. TOM CROWLEY sourced the story that at first he had to prove was not an April Fool's joke.
 
The Japan Times
Tue, 01 Jul 2014 02:45:00 -0700

Low-cost carrier Vanilla Air opened Tuesday a route between Narita International Airport and Amami Oshima Island in Kagoshima Prefecture. The Narita, Chiba Prefecture-based unit of ANA Holdings Inc. also normalized its flight services the same day ...
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