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Amami Ōshima
Native name: 奄美大島, Amami Ōshima
Nickname: Uushima
Naze port2.JPG
Naze Port on Amami Ōshima
Satsunan Islands.png
Geography
Location East China Sea
Coordinates 28°19′35″N 129°22′29″E / 28.32639°N 129.37472°E / 28.32639; 129.37472Coordinates: 28°19′35″N 129°22′29″E / 28.32639°N 129.37472°E / 28.32639; 129.37472
Archipelago Amami Islands
Area 712.39 km2 (275.06 sq mi)
Coastline 461.1 km (286.51 mi)
Highest elevation 694 m (2,277 ft)
Highest point Yuwandake
Country
Prefectures Kagoshima Prefecture
District Ōshima District
Largest settlement Amami (pop. 44,561)
Demographics
Population 73,000 (as of 2013)
Ethnic groups Japanese

Amami Ōshima (奄美大島?, Okinawan: Uushima (ウーシマ?); Amami: Ushima (ウシマ?)) is one of the Satsunan Islands, and is the largest island within the Amami archipelago between Kyūshū and Okinawa.[1]

The island, 712.35  km² in area, has a population of approximately 73,000 people. Administratively it is divided into the city of Amami, the towns of Tatsugō, Setouchi, and the villages of Uken and Yamato in Kagoshima Prefecture. Much of the island is within the borders of the Amami Guntō Quasi-National Park.

Geography[edit]

Amami Ōshima is the seventh largest island in the Japanese archipelago (excluding the disputed Kurile Islands) after the four main islands, Okinawa Island and Sado Island. It is located approximately 380 kilometres (210 nmi) south of the southern tip of Kyūshū and 250 kilometres (130 nmi) north of Okinawa. The island is of volcanic origin, with Mount Yuwanda at 605 metres (1,985 ft) above sea level at its highest peak. The coast of the island is surrounded by a coral reef. It is surrounded by the East China Sea on the west and the Pacific Ocean on the east.

The climate of Amami Ōshima is classified as has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) with very warm summers and mild winters. The rainy season lasts from May through September. The island is subject to frequent typhoons.

Fauna[edit]

Amami Ōshima is home to several rare or endangered endemic animals, including the Amami Rabbit and the Lidth's Jay, both of which are now found only in Amami Ōshima and Tokunoshima. The Amami rabbit is sometimes called a living fossil because it represents an ancient Asian lineage that has elsewhere disappeared.

The island is also home to the habu, a venomous snake that can be found throughout the Ryūkyū Islands. Mongooses were introduced to kill the habu, but have become another problem, as an increase in the mongoose population has been linked to the decline of the Amami rabbit and other endemic species.[2]

Whale Watching to target Humpback Whales has become one of featured attractions in winter in recent years, with tourism associations specialized for whale-watching have founded.[3] It is also notable that North Pacific Right Whale, the most endangered of all whale species have repeatedly appeared around the island[4][5] (there are 5 records of 3 sightings, a capture, and a strandings since in 1901) and as of 2014, Amami is the only location in East China Sea where this species have been confirmed at least in the past 110 and more years, and is also one of two locations in the world among with Bonin Islands where constant appearance in winter have been confirmed since in the 20th century. Discovery of Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphins in Seto strait made it the first confirmation in the nation. Other species include whales (Bryde's, Sperm), smaller whales or dolphins (False Killer, Spinner, Spotted), and so on. Before being wiped out, many large whales such as Blue, Fin were seasonal migrants as well.[6]

Historically, the island was the world's northernmost of Dugongs' distributions. These sea cows are now facing functional extinct, but there was a record of a single Dugong stayed for a short period in Kasari bay in the 2000s.

Amami Oshima is the only place where a nesting of Leatherback Turtle was seen in Japan.

History[edit]

It is uncertain when Amami Ōshima was first settled. Stone tools indicate settlement in the Japanese Paleolithic period, and other artifacts, including pottery, indicate a constant contact with Jomon, Yayoi and Kofun period Japan.

The island is mentioned in the ancient Japanese chronicle Nihon Shoki in an entry for the year 657 AD. During the Nara period and early Heian period it was a stopping place for envoys from Japan to the court of Tang dynasty China. Mother of pearl was an important export item to Japan. Until 1624, Amami Ōshima was part of the Ryukyu Kingdom. The island was invaded by samurai from Shimazu clan in 1609 and its incorporation into the official holdings of that domain was recognized by the Tokugawa shogunate in 1624. Shimazu rule was harsh, with the inhabitants of the island reduced to serfdom and forced to raise sugar cane to meet high taxation, which often resulted in famine. Saigo Takamori was exiled to Amami Ōshima in 1859, staying for two years, and his house has been preserved as a memorial museum. After the Meiji Restoration Amami Ōshima was incorporated into Ōsumi Province and later became part of Kagoshima Prefecture. Following World War II, although with the other Amami Islands, it was occupied by the United States until 1953, at which time it reverted to the control of Japan.

Since February 1974, the sea around and some parts of the island, a protected area in about 7.8 acres (3 ha) large national park "Amami Gunto Quasi-National Park".[7] The area also has a large mangrove forest.

Economy[edit]

The economy of Amami Ōshima is based on agriculture (sugar cane, rice and sweet potatoes), commercial fishing, and the distillation of shōchū. The favorable climate allows for two rice crops a year. Seasonal tourism is also an important part of the economy. The traditional crafts include the production of high quality hand-crafted silk, which has, however, suffered from the abandonment of traditional Japanese clothing and competition from overseas.

Transportation[edit]

The port of Naze, located in the city of Amami is a major regional shipping and ferry hub. Amami Airport, located at the northern end of the island, is connected to Tokyo, Osaka, Naha, Fukuoka and Kagoshima as well as local flights to the other Amami islands.

Language[edit]

Main article: Amami language

Two dialects of the Amami language are spoken in Amami Ōshima: the Northern Ōshima dialect and the Southern Ōshima dialect. These dialects are part of the Ryukyuan languages group. According to Ethnologue, as of 2004 there were about 10,000 speakers of the Northern Ōshima dialect and about 1,800 speakers of the Southern Ōshima dialect. These dialects are now spoken mostly by older residents of the island, while most of the younger generations are monolingual in Japanese. The Amami language, including the Ōshima dialects, is classified as endangered by UNESCO.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Teikoku's Complete Atlas of Japan, Teikoku-Shoin Co., Ltd., Tokyo, ISBN 4-8071-0004-1
  2. ^ Watari Y, Yamada F, Sugimura K, Takatsuki S. 2006. Direct and indirect effects of an alien mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) on the native animal community on Amami-Oshima Island, southern Japan, as inferred from distribution patterns of animals.
  3. ^ Oki K., 2014. Amami whale and dolphin association. retrieved on 28-05-2014
  4. ^ Ito H., 2014. Endangered whale captured on film off Amami-Oshima. The Asahi Shimbun. retrieved on 28-05-2014
  5. ^ Oki K., 2014.1/28 セミクジラ!!!!. 奄美大島撮影日記. retrieved on 28-05-2014
  6. ^ Miyazaki N., Nakayama K. (1989). "Records of Cetaceans in the Waters of the Amami Island" (PDF). 国立科学博物館専報 22, 235-249, 1989. National Museum of Nature and Science, Museum of History and Folklore in Kasari. p. CiNii. Retrieved 2015-01-12. 
  7. ^ http://www.env.go.jp/en/nature/nps/parks_list.html
  • Eldridge, Mark. The Return of the Amami Islands: The Reversion Movement and U.S.-Japan Relations. Levington Books (2004) ISBN 0739107100
  • Hellyer. Robert. Defining Engagement: Japan and Global Contexts, 1640-1868. Harvard University Press (2009) ISBN 0674035771
  • Turnbull, Stephen. The Most Daring Raid of the Samurai. Rosen Publishing Group (2011) ISBN 978-1448818723
  • Ravina, Mark. The Last Samurai: The Life and Battles of Saigo Takamori. Whiley (2011) ISBN 1118045564
  • Yeo, Andrew. Activists, Alliances, and Anti-U.S. Base Protests. Cambridge University Press. (2011) ISBN 1107002478

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amami_Ōshima — Please support Wikipedia.
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1898 news items

National Post

National Post
Fri, 28 Aug 2015 05:00:00 -0700

AMAMI, Japan — On the east coast of Amami-Oshima island in Kagoshima Prefecture, I took an about 90-minute canoe tour to explore a mangrove forest in the Sumiyocho district of Amami. “This is a good tide,” said guide Kazuhisa Saijo, 53, pointing ...

Asia Times

Asia Times
Thu, 03 Sep 2015 14:11:15 -0700

A keen canoeist for years, I was delighted to discover on a recent trip to Amami-Oshima island in Kagoshima Prefecture, that it was possible to explore a mangrove forest in Amami's Sumiyocho district by canoe. Japanese mangrove forest. “This is a good ...

The Guardian

The Guardian
Mon, 31 Aug 2015 04:40:00 -0700

Ministry officials have set aside £58m to expand an army base on Miyakojima island, 188 miles east of Yonaguni, and £47m to build a base on Amami Oshima, an island midway between the main Okinawan island and the Japanese mainland.

The Diplomat

The Diplomat
Tue, 01 Sep 2015 05:56:15 -0700

... a Ground Self-Defense Force (GSDF) base to station a GSDF patrol unit on Miyakojima island in Okinawa Prefecture, and $72 million for construction of another base to house a GSDF patrol unit equipped with mobile surveillance radars on Amami Oshima ...
 
World Socialist Web Site
Tue, 01 Sep 2015 22:48:45 -0700

As well as buying new naval and air force hardware, the budget will finance the building of a radar station on Yonaguni Island, the expansion of the military base on Miyakojima and the establishment of a new base on Amami-Oshima. Japan's military build ...

Independent Online

Independent Online
Sun, 30 Aug 2015 22:26:15 -0700

Amami, Japan - On the east coast of Amami-Oshima island in Kagoshima Prefecture, I took an about 90-minute canoe tour to explore a mangrove forest in the Sumiyocho district of Amami. “This is a good tide,” said guide Kazuhisa Saijo, 53, pointing ...
 
South China Morning Post (subscription)
Mon, 31 Aug 2015 11:49:25 -0700

In the budget request, defence officials have allocated US$90 million to expand an army base on Miyakojima island, 300km east of Yonaguni and US$72 million for base construction on Amami Oshima, an island halfway between the main Okinawan island, ...

The Japan News

The Japan News
Wed, 26 Aug 2015 11:56:15 -0700

By Natsuko Tamaki / Yomiuri Shimbun Staff WriterAMAMI, Kagoshima — On the east coast of Amami-Oshima island in Kagoshima Prefecture, I took an about 90-minute canoe tour to explore a mangrove forest in the Sumiyocho district of Amami. “This is a ...
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