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Amami Ōshima
Native name: 奄美大島, Amami Ōshima
Nickname: Uushima
Naze port2.JPG
Naze Port on Amami Ōshima
Satsunan Islands.png
Geography
Location East China Sea
Coordinates 28°19′35″N 129°22′29″E / 28.32639°N 129.37472°E / 28.32639; 129.37472Coordinates: 28°19′35″N 129°22′29″E / 28.32639°N 129.37472°E / 28.32639; 129.37472
Archipelago Amami Islands
Area 712.39 km2 (275.06 sq mi)
Coastline 461.1 km (286.51 mi)
Highest elevation 694 m (2,277 ft)
Highest point Yuwandake
Country
Prefectures Kagoshima Prefecture
District Ōshima District
Largest settlement Amami (pop. 44,561)
Demographics
Population 73,000 (as of 2013)
Ethnic groups Japanese

Amami Ōshima (奄美大島?, Okinawan: Uushima (ウーシマ?); Amami: Ushima (ウシマ?)) is one of the Satsunan Islands, and is the largest island within the Amami archipelago between Kyūshū and Okinawa.[1]

The island, 712.35  km2 in area, has a population of approximately 73,000 people. Administratively it is divided into the city of Amami, the towns of Tatsugō, Setouchi, and the villages of Uken and Yamato in Kagoshima Prefecture. Much of the island is within the borders of the Amami Guntō Quasi-National Park.

Geography[edit]

Amami Ōshima is the seventh largest island in the Japanese archipelago (excluding the disputed Kurile Islands) after the four main islands, Okinawa Island and Sado Island. It is located approximately 380 kilometres (210 nmi) south of the southern tip of Kyūshū and 250 kilometres (130 nmi) north of Okinawa. The island is of volcanic origin, with Mount Yuwanda at 605 metres (1,985 ft) above sea level at its highest peak. The coast of the island is surrounded by a coral reef. It is surrounded by the East China Sea on the west and the Pacific Ocean on the east.

The climate of Amami Ōshima is classified as has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) with very warm summers and mild winters. The rainy season lasts from May through September. The island is subject to frequent typhoons.

Fauna[edit]

Amami Ōshima is home to several rare or endangered endemic animals, including the Amami rabbit and the Lidth's jay, both of which are now found only in Amami Ōshima and Tokunoshima. The Amami rabbit is sometimes called a living fossil because it represents an ancient Asian lineage that has elsewhere disappeared.

The island is also home to the habu, a venomous snake that can be found throughout the Ryūkyū Islands. Mongooses were introduced to kill the habu, but have become another problem, as an increase in the mongoose population has been linked to the decline of the Amami rabbit and other endemic species.[2]

Whale watching to see humpback whales has become a featured attraction in winter in recent years.[3] It is also notable that North Pacific right whale, the most endangered of all whale species, have repeatedly appeared around the island[4] (there are five records of three sightings, a capture, and a stranding since 1901) and as of 2014, Amami is the only location in East China Sea where this species has been confirmed in the past 110 and years. It is also one of two locations in the world along with the Bonin Islands where constant appearance in winter has been confirmed since the 20th century. Discovery of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins in Seto strait made it the first confirmation in the nation. Other species include whales (Bryde's, sperm), smaller whales or dolphins (false killer, spinner, spotted), and so on. Before being wiped out, many large whales such as blue and fin were seasonal migrants.[5]

The island marks the northernmost limit of dugong distribution, with occasional sightings throughout the 20th and into the 21st century.[6]

Amami Oshima is the only place where a nesting of leatherback turtle has been seen in Japan.

History[edit]

It is uncertain when Amami Ōshima was first settled. Stone tools indicate settlement in the Japanese Paleolithic period, and other artifacts, including pottery, indicate a constant contact with Jomon, Yayoi and Kofun period Japan.

The island is mentioned in the ancient Japanese chronicle Nihon Shoki in an entry for the year 657 AD. During the Nara period and early Heian period it was a stopping place for envoys from Japan to the court of Tang dynasty China. Mother of pearl was an important export item to Japan. Until 1624, Amami Ōshima was part of the Ryukyu Kingdom. The island was invaded by samurai from Shimazu clan in 1609 and its incorporation into the official holdings of that domain was recognized by the Tokugawa shogunate in 1624. Shimazu rule was harsh, with the inhabitants of the island reduced to serfdom and forced to raise sugar cane to meet high taxation, which often resulted in famine. Saigo Takamori was exiled to Amami Ōshima in 1859, staying for two years, and his house has been preserved as a memorial museum. After the Meiji Restoration Amami Ōshima was incorporated into Ōsumi Province and later became part of Kagoshima Prefecture. Following World War II, along with the other Amami Islands, it was occupied by the United States until 1953, at which time it reverted to the control of Japan.

Since February 1974, a 7,861-hectare (19,420-acre) area that includes portions of the island and surrounding sea has been protected as Amami Gunto Quasi-national Park.[7] The area also has a large mangrove forest.

Economy[edit]

The economy of Amami Ōshima is based on agriculture (sugar cane, rice and sweet potatoes), commercial fishing, and the distillation of shōchū. The favorable climate allows for two rice crops a year. Seasonal tourism is also an important part of the economy. The traditional crafts include the production of high quality hand-crafted silk, which has, however, suffered from the abandonment of traditional Japanese clothing and competition from overseas.

Transportation[edit]

The port of Naze, located in the city of Amami is a major regional shipping and ferry hub. Amami Airport, located at the northern end of the island, is connected to Tokyo, Osaka, Naha, Fukuoka and Kagoshima as well as local flights to the other Amami islands.

Language[edit]

Main article: Amami language

Two dialects of the Amami language are spoken in Amami Ōshima: the Northern Ōshima dialect and the Southern Ōshima dialect. These dialects are part of the Ryukyuan languages group. According to Ethnologue, as of 2004 there were about 10,000 speakers of the Northern Ōshima[8] dialect and about 1,800 speakers of the Southern Ōshima dialect.[9] These dialects are now spoken mostly by older residents of the island, while most of the younger generations are monolingual in Japanese. The Amami language, including the Ōshima dialects, is classified as endangered by UNESCO.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Teikoku's Complete Atlas of Japan, Teikoku-Shoin Co., Ltd., Tokyo, ISBN 4-8071-0004-1
  2. ^ Watari Y, Yamada F, Sugimura K, Takatsuki S (2006). "Direct and indirect effects of an alien mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) on the native animal community on Amami-Oshima Island, southern Japan, as inferred from distribution patterns of animals" (PDF). 
  3. ^ Oki K., 2014. Amami whale and dolphin association. retrieved on 28-05-2014
  4. ^ Ito, H. (1 February 2014). "Endangered whale captured on film off Amami-Oshima". Asahi Shimbun. Retrieved 2014-05-28. 
  5. ^ Miyazaki N, Nakayama K (1989). "Records of Cetaceans in the Waters of the Amami Island". Memoirs of the National Science Museum (in Japanese). National Museum of Nature and Science, Museum of History and Folklore in Kasari. pp. 235–249. Retrieved 2015-01-12 – via CiNii. 
  6. ^ Shirakihara M, Yoshida H, Yokochi H, Ogawa H, Hosokawa T, Higashi N, Kasuya T (1 July 2007). "Current status and conservation needs of dugongs in southern Japan" (PDF). Marine Mammal Science 23 (3): 694–706. doi:10.1111/j.1748-7692.2007.00123.x. 
  7. ^ "List of National and Quasi-national Parks". Ministry of the Environment, Government of Japan. Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  8. ^ Lewis MP; Simons GF; Fennig CD, eds. (2015). "Amami-Oshima, Northern". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (18th ed.). Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  9. ^ Lewis MP; Simons GF; Fennig CD, eds. (2015). "Amami-Oshima, Southern". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (18th ed.). Retrieved 2016-02-01. 
  • Eldridge, Mark. The Return of the Amami Islands: The Reversion Movement and U.S.–Japan Relations. Levington Books (2004) ISBN 0739107100
  • Hellyer. Robert. Defining Engagement: Japan and Global Contexts, 1640–1868. Harvard University Press (2009) ISBN 0674035771
  • Turnbull, Stephen. The Most Daring Raid of the Samurai. Rosen Publishing Group (2011) ISBN 978-1448818723
  • Ravina, Mark. The Last Samurai: The Life and Battles of Saigo Takamori. Whiley (2011) ISBN 1118045564
  • Yeo, Andrew. Activists, Alliances, and Anti-U.S. Base Protests. Cambridge University Press. (2011) ISBN 1107002478

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amami_Ōshima — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.

1258 news items

The Japan Times

Asahi Shimbun
Sun, 24 Jan 2016 23:28:47 -0800

The usually balmy island of Amami-Oshima island in southern Kagoshima Prefecture reported its first snowfall in 115 years on Jan. 24, after this winter's coldest air mass chilled many parts of Japan, packing heavy snow. The area near the summit of ...

CNN

CNN
Thu, 28 Jan 2016 14:52:30 -0800

What nation includes Amami Oshima island, which received snow for the first time in 115 years as unusually cold weather swept across the region? 4. Health officials expect that the Zika virus will spread to all but two nations in the Western Hemisphere.
 
Democracy Now!
Mon, 25 Jan 2016 06:59:40 -0800

Islands across Japan also experienced their coldest days in decades, with one island, Amami Oshima, receiving snow for the first time in 115 years. In Vietnam, farmers are grappling with the coldest winter in more than 40 years. Vietnamese farmer Song ...
 
Asahi Shimbun
Sat, 09 Jan 2016 00:06:49 -0800

TATSUGO, Kagoshima Prefecture--For those with a hankering to go “hanami” flower viewing, now is the time on the north of Amami-Oshima island. Tatsugo's forest park was ablaze in vivid pink on Jan. 8 as Deputy Mayor Kazunori Kumamoto announced that ...

XEU

XEU
Mon, 25 Jan 2016 06:37:30 -0800

Nevó después de 115 años en la isla japonesa Amami Oshima, como consecuencia de un temporal de tormentas de nieves que está afectando a casi todo el archipiélago nipón. Los habitantes de la mencionada isla quedaron sorprendidos cuando ...
 
The Japan Times
Thu, 28 Jan 2016 19:33:45 -0800

Mainly produced on the prefecture's Amami Oshima Island, Oshima tsumugi has a history dating back 1,300 years. Praised for its delicate patterns, it is entirely handmade and involves as many as 30 separate processes to complete. Production has plunged ...

USA TODAY

USA TODAY
Tue, 26 Jan 2016 08:28:32 -0800

Another southern island, Amami-Oshima, recorded its first snow in more than a century. Record snowfalls hit Nagasaki and other cities in Kyushu, the southernmost of Japan's four main islands. Some communities in Kyushu were without water service on ...

CNN

CNN
Sun, 24 Jan 2016 22:53:25 -0800

(CNN) Record low temperatures have wreaked havoc in several Asia countries, with 85 people reported dead in Taiwan and tens of thousands stranded at airports because of the unprecedented cold snap. In South Korea, at least 90,300 saw their flights ...
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