digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

For other uses, see Allophone (disambiguation).
Diagram of basic procedure to determine whether two sounds are allophones

In phonology, an allophone (/ˈæləfn/; from the Greek: ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds (or phones) used to pronounce a single phoneme.[1] For example, [pʰ] (as in pin) and [p] (as in spin) are allophones for the phoneme /p/ in the English language. Although a phoneme's allophones are all alternative pronunciations for a phoneme, the specific allophone selected in a given situation is often predictable. Changing the allophone used by native speakers for a given phoneme in a specific context usually will not change the meaning of a word but the result may sound non-native or unintelligible. Native speakers of a given language usually perceive one phoneme in their language as a single distinctive sound in that language and are "both unaware of and even shocked by" the allophone variations used to pronounce single phonemes.[2][3]

History of concept[edit]

The term "allophone" was coined by Benjamin Lee Whorf in the 1940s. In doing so, he placed a cornerstone in consolidating early phoneme theory.[4] The term was popularized by G. L. Trager and Bernard Bloch in a 1941 paper on English phonology[5] and went on to become part of standard usage within the American structuralist tradition.[6]

Complementary and free-variant allophones[edit]

Every time a speech sound is produced for a given phoneme, it will be slightly different from other utterances, even for the same speaker. This has led to some debate over how real, and how universal, phonemes really are (see phoneme for details). Only some of the variation is significant (i.e., detectable or perceivable) to speakers. There are two types of allophones, based on whether a phoneme must be pronounced using a specific allophone in a specific situation, or whether the speaker has freedom to (unconsciously) choose which allophone to use.

When a specific allophone (from a set of allophones that correspond to a phoneme) must be selected in a given context (i.e., using a different allophone for a phoneme will cause confusion or make the speaker sound non-native), the allophones are said to be complementary (i.e., the allophones complement each other, and one is not used in a situation where the usage of another is standard). In the case of complementary allophones, each allophone is used in a specific phonetic context and may be involved in a phonological process.[7]

In other cases, the speaker is able to select freely from free variant allophones, based on personal habit or preference.

Allotone[edit]

A tonic allophone is sometimes called an allotone, for example in the neutral tone of Mandarin.

Examples in English vs. other languages[edit]

For example, [pʰ] as in pin and [p] as in spin are allophones for the phoneme /p/ in the English language because they cannot distinguish words (in fact, they occur in complementary distribution). English speakers treat them as the same sound, but they are different: the first is aspirated and the second is unaspirated (plain). Plain [p] also occurs as the p in cap [kʰæp], or the second p in paper [pʰeɪ.pɚ]. Chinese languages treat these two phones differently; for example in Mandarin, [p] (written b in Pinyin) and [pʰ] (written p) contrast phonemically. Many Indo-Aryan languages, such as Hindustani, also write the two phones differently and treat them as completely distinct phonemes: [p] is written as 'प' (or 'پ'), while [pʰ] is written 'फ' (or 'پھ') and so on.[8]

There are many other allophonic processes in English, like lack of plosion, nasal plosion, partial devoicing of sonorants, complete devoicing of sonorants, partial devoicing of obstruents, lengthening and shortening vowels, and retraction.

  • Aspiration – strong explosion of breath. In English a voiceless plosive that is p, t or k is aspirated whenever it stands as the only consonant at the beginning of the stressed syllable or of the first, stressed or unstressed, syllable in a word.
  • Nasal plosion – In English a plosive (/p, t, k, b, d, ɡ/) has nasal plosion when it is followed by a nasal, inside a word or across word boundary.
  • Partial devoicing of sonorants – In English sonorants (/j, w, l, r, m, n, ŋ/) are partially devoiced when they follow a voiceless sound within the same syllable.
  • Complete devoicing of sonorants – In English a sonorant is completely devoiced when it follows an aspirated plosive (/p, t, k/).
  • Partial devoicing of obstruents – In English, a voiced obstruent is partially devoiced next to a pause or next to a voiceless sound, inside a word or across its boundary.
  • Retraction – in English /t, d, n, l/ are retracted before /r/.

Because the choice of allophone is seldom under conscious control, people may not realize they exist. English speakers may be unaware of the differences among six allophones of the phoneme /t/, namely unreleased [ t̚] as in cat, aspirated [tʰ] as in top, glottalized [ʔ] as in button, flapped [ɾ] as in American English water, nasalized flapped as in winter, and none of the above [t] as in stop. However, they may become aware of the differences if, for example, they contrast the pronunciations of the following words:

  • Night rate: unreleased [ˈnʌɪt̚.ɹʷeɪt̚] (without word space between . and ɹ)
  • Nitrate: aspirated [ˈnaɪ.tʰɹ̥eɪt̚] or retracted [ˈnaɪ.tʃɹʷeɪt̚]

If a flame is held before the lips while these words are spoken, it flickers more during aspirated nitrate than during unaspirated night rate. The difference can also be felt by holding the hand in front of the lips. For a Mandarin speaker, to whom /t/ and /tʰ/ are separate phonemes, the English distinction is much more obvious than it is to the English speaker who has learned since childhood to ignore it.

Allophones of English /l/ may be noticed if the 'light' [l] of leaf [ˈliːf] is contrasted with the 'dark' [ɫ] of feel [ˈfiːɫ]. Again, this difference is much more obvious to a Turkish speaker, for whom /l/ and /ɫ/ are separate phonemes, than to an English speaker, for whom they are allophones of a single phoneme.

Allophony of "v-w" in Hindustani[edit]

Another example is that of [v] versus [w] in Hindustani. These are distinct phonemes in English, but both allophones of the phoneme /व/ (or /و/) in Hindustani. Native Hindi speakers pronounce /व/ as [v] in vrat ('व्रत', fast) but [w] in pakwan ('पकवान', food dish), treating them as a single phoneme and without being aware of the allophone distinctions they are subconsciously making, though these are apparent to native English speakers. However, the allophone phenomenon becomes obvious when speakers switch languages. When non-native speakers speak Hindustani, they might pronounce /व/ in 'व्रत' as [w], producing wrat instead of the correct vrat. This results in an intelligibility problem because wrat can easily be confused for aurat, which means woman instead of fast in Hindustani. Similarly, Hindustani speakers might unconsciously apply their native 'v-w' allophony rules to English words, pronouncing war as var or advance as adwance, which can result in intelligibility problems with native English speakers.[9]

Representing a phoneme with an allophone[edit]

Since phonemes are abstractions of speech sounds, not the sounds themselves, they have no direct phonetic transcription. When they are realized without much allophonic variation, a simple broad transcription is used. However, when there are complementary allophones of a phoneme, so that the allophony is significant, things become more complicated. Often, if only one of the allophones is simple to transcribe, in the sense of not requiring diacritics, then that representation is chosen for the phoneme.

However, there may be several such allophones, or the linguist may prefer greater precision than this allows. In such cases a common convention is to use the "elsewhere condition" to decide which allophone will stand for the phoneme. The "elsewhere" allophone is the one that remains once the conditions for the others are described by phonological rules. For example, English has both oral and nasal allophones of its vowels. The pattern is that vowels are nasal only when preceding a nasal consonant within the same syllable; elsewhere they're oral. Therefore, by the "elsewhere" convention, the oral allophones are considered basic; nasal vowels in English are considered to be allophones of oral phonemes.

In other cases, an allophone may be chosen to represent its phoneme because it is more common in the world's languages than the other allophones, because it reflects the historical origin of the phoneme, or because it gives a more balanced look to a chart of the phonemic inventory. In rare cases a linguist may represent phonemes with abstract symbols, such as dingbats, so as not to privilege any one allophone.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ R. Jakobson, Structure of Language and Its Mathematical Aspects: Proceedings of symposia in applied mathematics, AMS Bookstore, 1980, ISBN 978-0-8218-1312-6, "... An allophone is the set of phones contained in the intersection of a maximal set of phonetically similar phones and a primary phonetically related set of phones ..." 
  2. ^ B.D. Sharma, Linguistics and Phonetics, Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd., 2005, ISBN 978-81-261-2120-5, "... The ordinary native speaker is, in fact, often unaware of the allophonic variations of his phonemes ..." 
  3. ^ Y. Tobin, Phonology as human behavior: theoretical implications and clinical applications, Duke University Press, 1997, ISBN 978-0-8223-1822-4, "... always found that native speakers are clearly aware of the phonemes of their language but are both unaware of and even shocked by the plethora of allophones and the minutiae needed to distinguish between them ..." 
  4. ^ Lee, Penny (1996). The Whorf Theory Complex — A Critical Reconstruction. John Benjamins. pp. 46, 88. 
  5. ^ Trager, George L. (1959). "The Systematization of the Whorf Hypothesis". Anthropological Linguistics (Operational Models in Synchronic Linguistics: A Symposium Presented at the 1958 Meetings of the American Anthropological Association) 1 (1): 31–35. JSTOR 30022173. 
  6. ^ Hymes, Dell H.; Fought, John G. (1981). American Structuralism. Walter de Gruyter. p. 99. 
  7. ^ Barbara M. Birch, English L2 reading: getting to the bottom, Psychology Press, 2002, ISBN 978-0-8058-3899-2, "... When the occurrence of one allophone is predictable when compared to the other, as in this case, we call this complementary distribution. Complementary distribution means that the allophones are "distributed" as complements ..." 
  8. ^ A.S. Kharbe, English Language and Literary Criticism, Discovery Publishing House, 2009, ISBN 978-81-8356-483-0, "... the difference between [ph] and [p] in English is nonphonemic; the two sounds realize, or belong to, the same phoneme, namely /p/. In several other languages – e.g. Hindi – the contrast between such sounds as [ph] and [p] is phonemic however ..." 
  9. ^ Janet Pierrehumbert, Rami Nair, Implications of Hindi Prosodic Structure (Current Trends in Phonology: Models and Methods), European Studies Research Institute, University of Salford Press, 1996, ISBN 978-1-901471-02-1, "... showed extremely regular patterns. As is not uncommon in a study of subphonemic detail, the objective data patterned much more cleanly than intuitive judgments ... [w] occurs when /व/ is in onglide position ... [v] occurs otherwise ..." 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allophone — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
926 videos foundNext > 

Know your allophones in English

What are allophones? Here are a few examples. Allophones are all the variants of a particular sound or phoneme. Native speakers of a language use the correct...

Phones Allophones and Phonemesv2

A short lecture on phones, allophones, and phonemes.

Intro to Phonology: Phonemes & Allophones (lesson 1 of 4)

The first video in a basic introduction to phonology, the study of pronunciation systems. Use minimal pairs to piece together all the phonemes of a language....

IPA for Language Learning - allophones, utterances & prosody (4 of 4)

Learn to use the International Phonetic Alphabet in a way that helps you accurately pronounce other languages. In this fourth & final lesson I introduce conc...

Phonemes and Allophones

This video talks about phonology. I made this video with the underlying idea to improve my speaking or lecture ability in front of big audiences. I want to c...

René Tinawi: mieux vaut une immigration allophone qu'islamiste

René Tinawi: mieux vaut une immigration allophone qu'islamiste.

Option nationale - Un país nuestro

Jean-Martin Aussant, el jefe d'option nationale, explica en qué consiste el projecto de crear un nuevo país. À l'intention des Québécois hispanophones, Jean-...

Please Come By - Allophone.

Neuer Song von mir, "Please Come By" - Allophone. Hab mal 'ne Singer-Songwriter Version zuhause aufgenommen und die Vergangenheit damit hinter mir gelassen! ...

Bowser & Blue @ Cote Saint-Luc Canada Day 2013 perform ALLOPHONE

The hilariously talented musical, political satirists George Bowser and Ricky Blue perform a song on Quebec's Allophones at Cote Saint-Luc's Canada Day celeb...

Allo Allophones

A celebration of Montreal immigrants who are called, in Quebec, "Allophones". Song by Bowser and Blue. Cartoons and graphics by Aislin. LYRICS: Let's look on...

926 videos foundNext > 

3 news items

The Guardian (blog)

The Guardian (blog)
Thu, 10 Jul 2014 07:44:50 -0700

And as Canada is an incredibly diverse nation with large populations of native speakers of European, Asian, African and Arab languages, it could likewise benefit from reciprocal arrangements with allophone nations' public broadcasters. A global network ...

musikmachen.de

musikmachen.de
Tue, 22 Jul 2014 01:48:45 -0700

Wer über einen Controller wie etwa das Launchpad von Novation verfügt, kann die 64 Allophone auch über eine Buttonmatrix ansteuern. Mehr zum duophonen Vollwert-Synthesizer πλ² „Pi L Squared“ im Streichholzschachtelformat aus dem Hause Ploytech ...
 
PresseBox (Pressemitteilung)
Fri, 18 Jul 2014 02:41:43 -0700

Verschiedene Spielmodi erlauben sowohl die Anwahl der Allophone (Sprachelemente) via Keyboard mit Tonhöhenkontrolle über das Modulationsrad, als auch andersherum, freies Spielen mit Allophon Auswahl via Modulationsrad. Die PL02.56 Firmware ...
Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Talk About Allophone

You can talk about Allophone with people all over the world in our discussions.

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!