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For other uses, see Alabaster (disambiguation).
Three Maries, alabaster sculpture by Master of the Rimini Crucifixion (c. 1430), National Museum, Warsaw.
An uplighter lamp made from Italian alabaster of white and brown types; the base is 5 inches (13 cm) in diameter.
An alabaster perfume jar from Tutankhamun's tomb.

Alabaster is a name applied to varieties of two distinct minerals, when used as a material: gypsum (a hydrous sulfate of calcium) and calcite, a carbonate of calcium, also known as onyx-marble, Egyptian alabaster or Oriental alabaster, in geological terms is "a stalagmitic limestone marked with patterns of swirling bands of cream and brown".[1] In general, but not always, ancient Alabaster in Egypt and the Near & Middle East is calcite. Alabaster in medieval Europe is gypsum. Modern Alabaster is probably calcite, but may be either. Both are easy to 'work' and as both are slightly water soluble, have been used for making a variety of indoor artworks and carvings, as they will not survive long outdoors.

The two kinds are distinguished from one another readily by differences in their relative hardness. The gypsum kind is so soft as to be readily scratched with a fingernail (Mohs hardness 1.5 to 2), while the calcite kind is too hard to be scratched in this way (Mohs hardness 3), although it does yield readily to a knife. Moreover, the calcite alabaster, being a carbonate, effervesces upon being touched with hydrochloric acid, whereas the gypsum alabaster, when thus treated, remains practically unaffected.

Owing to the characteristic color of white alabaster, the term has entered the vernacular as a metonym for white things, particularly "alabaster skin", which means very light and quite translucent, and possibly derives from the use of alabaster for tomb effigies.[citation needed]

Etymology[edit]

The origin of the word alabaster is in Middle English, through Old French alabastre, in turn derived from the Latin alabaster and that from Greek ἀλάβαστρος (alabastros) or ἀλάβαστος (alabastos). The latter was a term used to identify a vase made of alabaster.[2]

This name may derive further from the Ancient Egyptian word a-labaste, which refers to vessels of the Egyptian goddess Bast. She was represented as a lioness and frequently depicted as such in figures placed atop these alabaster vessels.[3][4] Other suggestions include derivation from the town of Alabastron in Egypt.[5]

Types[edit]

Calcite alabaster[edit]

This substance, the "alabaster" of the Ancient Egyptians and Bible, often is termed Oriental alabaster, since the early examples came from the Far East. The Greek name alabastrites is said to be derived from the town of Alabastron, in Egypt, where the stone was quarried. The locality probably owed its name to the mineral; the origin of the mineral name is obscure.

The "Oriental" alabaster was highly esteemed for making small perfume bottles or ointment vases called alabastra; the vessel name has been suggested as a possible source of the mineral name. In Egypt craftsmen used alabaster for canopic jars and various other sacred and sepulchral objects. A sarcophagus, sculptured in a single block of translucent calcite alabaster from Alabastron, is in the Sir John Soane's Museum, London. This was discovered by Giovanni Belzoni in 1817 in the tomb of Seti I near Thebes. It was purchased by Sir John Soane.

When cut in thin sheets, alabaster is translucent enough to be used for small windows. It was used for this purpose in medieval churches, especially in Italy. Large alabaster sheets are used extensively in the contemporary Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, which was dedicated in 2002 by the Los Angeles, California Archdiocese. The cathedral incorporates special cooling to prevent the panes from overheating and turning opaque.

Calcite alabaster is found as either a stalagmitic deposit, from the floor and walls of limestone caverns, or as a kind of travertine, similarly deposited in springs of calcareous water. Its deposition in successive layers gives rise to the banded appearance that the marble often shows on cross-section, from which it derives its name: onyx-marble or alabaster-onyx, or sometimes simply as onyx. The latter term should be restricted to siliceous minerals, however.

Egyptian alabaster has been worked extensively near Suez and Assiut. Many ancient quarries are found in the hills overlooking the plain of Tell el Amarna.

Algerian onyx-marble has been quarried largely in the province of Oran. In Mexico, there are famous deposits of a delicate green variety at La Pedrara, in the district of Tecali, near Puebla. Onyx-marble occurs also in the district of Tehuacán and at several localities in California, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and Virginia.

Gypsum alabaster[edit]

Gypsum alabaster was very widely used for small sculpture for indoor use in the ancient world, especially in Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. Fine detail could be obtained in a material with an attractive finish without iron or steel tools. Alabaster was used for vessels dedicated for use in the cult of the deity Bast in the culture of the Ancient Egyptians, and thousands of gypsum alabaster artifacts dating to the late 4th millennium BC also have been found in Tell Brak (present day Nagar), in Syria.[6] In Mesopotamia, gypsum alabaster was the typical material for figures of deities and devotees from temples, as in a figure believed to represent the deity, Abu, dating to the first half of the 3rd millennium BC in New York.[7]

Gypsum alabaster is a common mineral, which occurs in England in the Keuper marls of the Midlands, especially at Chellaston in Derbyshire, at Fauld in Staffordshire, and near Newark in Nottinghamshire. Deposits at all of these localities have been worked extensively. In the 14th and 15th centuries its carving into small statues and sets of relief panels for altarpieces was a valuable local industry in Nottingham, as well as a major English export. These were usually painted, or partly painted. It was also used for the effigies, often life size, on tomb monuments, as the typical recumbent position suited the material's lack of strength, and it was cheaper and easier to work than good marble. Besides examples of these carvings still in Britain (especially at the Nottingham Castle Museum, British Museum, and Victoria and Albert Museum), trade in mineral alabaster (rather than just the antiques trade) has scattered examples in the material that may be found as far afield as the Musée de Cluny, Spain, and Scandinavia.

Alabaster also is found, although in smaller quantity, at Watchet in Somerset, near Penarth in Glamorganshire, and elsewhere. In Cumbria it occurs largely in the New Red rocks, but at a lower geological horizon. The alabaster of Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire is found in thick nodular beds or "floors" in spheroidal masses known as "balls" or "bowls" and in smaller lenticular masses termed "cakes." At Chellaston, where the local alabaster is known as "Patrick," it has been worked into ornaments under the name of "Derbyshire spar"—a term more properly applied to fluorspar.

In Europe, the centre of the alabaster trade today is Florence, Italy. Tuscan alabaster occurs in nodular masses embedded in limestone, interstratified with marls of Miocene and Pliocene age. The mineral is worked largely by means of underground galleries, in the district of Volterra. Several varieties are recognized—veined, spotted, clouded, agatiform, and others. The finest kind, obtained principally from Castellina, is sent to Florence for figure-sculpture, while the common kinds are carved locally, into vases, lights, and various ornamental objects. These items are objects of extensive trade, especially in Florence, Pisa, and Livorno. Spain and many other countries have deposits which have been worked.

Black alabaster[edit]

Black alabaster is a rare form of the gypsum-based mineral. This black form is found in only three veins in the world, one each in Oklahoma, Italy, and China.

Alabaster Caverns State Park, near Freedom, Oklahoma is home to a natural gypsum cave in which much of the gypsum is in the form of alabaster. There are several types of alabaster found at the site, including pink, white, and the rare black alabaster.

Uses[edit]

Alabaster cosmetic jar topped with a lioness, representing the goddess Bast, a burial artifact from the tomb of Tutankhamun circa 1323 B.C.—Cairo Museum
Alabaster windows in Santa Maria La Major church (Morella, Spain).

The finer kinds of alabaster are employed largely as an ornamental stone, especially for ecclesiastical decoration and for the rails of staircases and halls. Its softness enables it to be carved readily into elaborate forms, but its solubility in water renders it unsuitable for outdoor work. If alabaster with a smooth, polished surface is washed with dishwashing liquid, it will become rough, dull and whiter, losing most of its translucency and lustre.

The purest alabaster is a snow-white material of fine uniform grain, but it often is associated with an oxide of iron, which produces brown clouding and veining in the stone. The coarser varieties of alabaster are converted by calcination into plaster of Paris, whence they sometimes are known as "plaster stone."

In order to diminish the translucency of the alabaster and to produce an opacity suggestive of true marble, the statues are immersed in a bath of water and heated gradually—nearly to the boiling-point—an operation requiring great care, for if the temperature is not regulated carefully, the stone acquires a dead-white, chalky appearance. The effect of heating appears to be a partial dehydration of the gypsum. If properly treated, it very closely resembles true marble and is known as marmo di Castellina.

Sulphate of lime (gypsum) also was used by the ancients. It was employed, for instance, in Assyrian sculpture. So some of the ancient alabaster is identical to the modern stone.

Alabaster may be stained to disguise it, by being heated in various pigmentary solutions. In this way a very misleading imitation of coral that is called alabaster coral is produced.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  • "Grove": R. W. Sanderson and Francis Cheetham. "Alabaster", Grove Art Online, Oxford Art Online, Oxford University Press, accessed March 13, 2013, subscriber link.
Attribution

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Alabaster". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Harrell J.A. (1990), "Misuse of the term 'alabaster' in Egyptology," Göttinger Miszellen, 119, pp. 37–42.
  • Mackintosh-Smith T. (1999), "Moonglow from Underground". Aramco World May–June 1999.[1]

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alabaster — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.

1793 news items

 
AL.com
Tue, 26 Aug 2014 19:37:30 -0700

ALABASTER, Alabama -- The Alabaster Planning and Zoning Board tonight approved a request to continue a hearing concerning the rezoning of pastureland property for possible development of a neighborhood next to the Saddle Lake Farms subdivision.
 
AL.com
Mon, 25 Aug 2014 10:26:15 -0700

Alabaster police car length edit.jpg The Alabaster Police Department is hosting its Coffee with a Cop event from 8 to 10 a.m. on Sept. 17 at Chick-Fil-A in Alabaster. ALABASTER, Alabama -- The Alabaster Police Department is inviting the community to ...
 
AL.com
Tue, 12 Aug 2014 08:22:30 -0700

The City of Alabaster's Teen Council is organizing the first Alabaster Teen Fest happening from 4 to 10 p.m. on Saturday, Aug. 16, 2014, at Municipal Park. Members of the council include, back row, Hope Martin, Noah Houston, Michael Giddens, Olivia ...
 
AL.com
Wed, 20 Aug 2014 17:11:15 -0700

ALABASTER, Alabama -- The Alabaster Board of Education tonight voted to allow its investment bankers to raise roughly $120 million through the sale of bonds Thursday for construction of a new high school, renovations and other services for the district.
 
AL.com
Fri, 22 Aug 2014 15:07:30 -0700

COLUMBIANA, Alabama – An Alabaster man received a suspended prison sentence and will be on probation for three years after pleading guilty to charges stemming from a high-speed car chase in 2012. Courtney Sherrod Kennedy last week pleaded guilty ...

Alabaster Reporter

AL.com
Tue, 19 Aug 2014 14:11:15 -0700

ALABASTER, Alabama – The Alabaster Police Department is reporting that two handguns and other items were stolen from an unlocked vehicle in the Apache Ridge subdivision sometime during the early-morning hours on Monday. The police department on ...
 
The Huntsville Times - al.com
Mon, 18 Aug 2014 08:00:00 -0700

Thompson High School held its' first homecoming parade in over 50 years Wednesday September 25, 2013 in Alabaster, Alabama. The parade featured the marching band, teams and youth league cheerleaders and teams. (Frank Couch/fcouch@al.com).
 
The Huntsville Times - al.com
Mon, 11 Aug 2014 13:03:45 -0700

With Alabaster separating from Shelby County's system, some students in what had been the county-zoned Saddle Lake Farms subdivision this fall would have had to leave their city classrooms about four miles away to begin attending schools in Columbiana ...
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