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This article is about mythological ages. For the "Seven Ages of Man" speech from Shakespeare's "As You Like It", see All the world's a stage. For the one-man show, see Ages of Man (play).
Lucas Cranach the Elder, The Golden Age

The Ages of Man are the stages of human existence on the Earth according to Greek mythology.

Two classical authors (Hesiod and Ovid) offered accounts of the successive ages of humanity, which tend to progress from an original, long-gone age in which humans enjoyed a nearly divine existence to the current age of the writer, in which humans are beset by innumerable pains and evils. In the two accounts that survive from ancient Greece and Rome, this degradation of the human condition over time is indicated symbolically with metals of successively decreasing value.[citation needed]

Hesiod's Five Ages[edit]

Lucas Cranach the Elder, The Silver Age
Virgil Solis, The Iron Age

The first extant account of the successive ages of humanity comes from the Greek poet Hesiod's Works and Days (lines 109-201). His list is:

  • Golden Age – The Golden Age is the only age that falls within the rule of Cronus. Created by the immortals who live on Olympus, these humans were said to live among the gods, and freely mingled with them. Peace and harmony prevailed during this age. Humans did not have to work to feed themselves, for the earth provided food in abundance. They lived to a very old age but with a youthful appearance and eventually died peacefully. Their spirits live on as "guardians". Plato in Cratylus (397e) recounts the golden race of men who came first. He clarifies that Hesiod did not mean men literally made of gold, but good and noble. He describes these men as daemons upon the earth. Since δαίμονες (daimones) is derived from δαήμονες (daēmones, meaning knowing or wise), they are beneficent, preventing ills, and guardians of mortals.
  • Silver Age – The Silver Age and every age that follows fall within the rule of Cronus' successor and son, Zeus. Men in the Silver age lived for one hundred years under the dominion of their mothers. They lived only a short time as grown adults, and spent that time in strife with one another. During this Age men refused to worship the gods and Zeus destroyed them for their impiety. After death, humans of this age became "blessed spirits" of the underworld.
  • Bronze Age – Men of the Bronze Age were hardened and tough, as war was their purpose and passion. Zeus created these humans out of the ash tree. Their armor was forged of bronze, as were their homes, and tools. The men of this Age were undone by their own violent ways and left no named spirits; instead, they dwell in the "dank house of Hades". This Age came to an end with the flood of Deucalion.
  • Heroic Age – The Heroic Age is the one age that does not correspond with any metal. It is also the only age that improves upon the age it follows. These humans were created from the bones of the earth (stones) through the actions of Deucalion and Pyrrha. In this period men lived with noble demigods and heroes. It was the heroes of this Age who fought at Thebes and Troy. This race of humans died and went to Elysium.
  • Iron Age – Hesiod finds himself in the Iron Age. During this age humans live an existence of toil and misery. Children dishonor their parents, brother fights with brother and the social contract between guest and host (xenia) is forgotten. During this age might makes right, and bad men use lies to be thought good. At the height of this age, humans no longer feel shame or indignation at wrongdoing; babies will be born with gray hair and the gods will have completely forsaken humanity: "there will be no help against evil."

Ovid's Four Ages[edit]

The Roman poet Ovid (1st century BC – 1st century AD) tells a similar myth of Four Ages in Book 1.89–150 of the Metamorphoses. His account is similar to Hesiod's with the exception that he omits the Heroic Age.

Ovid emphasizes the justice and peace that defined the Golden Age. He adds that in this age, men did not yet know the art of navigation and therefore did not explore the larger world.

In the Silver Age, Jupiter introduces the seasons and men consequentially learn the art of agriculture and architecture.

In the Bronze Age, Ovid writes, men were prone to warfare, but not impiety.

Finally, in the Iron Age, men demarcate nations with boundaries; they learn the arts of navigation and mining; they are warlike, greedy and impious. Truth, modesty and loyalty are nowhere to be found.

Historicity of the Ages[edit]

These mythological ages are sometimes associated with historical timelines. In the chronology of Saint Jerome the Golden Age lasts ca. 1710 to 1674 BC, the Silver Age 1674 to 1628 BC, the Bronze Age 1628 to 1472 BC, the Heroic Age 1460 to 1103 BC, while Hesiod's Iron Age was considered as still ongoing by Saint Jerome in the 4th century AD.[1]

See also[edit]

Similar concepts include:


  1. ^ St. Jerome. "St. Jerome, Chronicle (2004-5). Preface of Jerome; Preface of Eusebius". Tertullian.org. Retrieved 2012-11-16. 

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ages_of_Man — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.

13 news items

Ottawa Citizen

Ottawa Citizen
Fri, 19 Sep 2014 11:22:30 -0700

Not quite seven ages of man but six ages of woman. “I also wanted to resolve some of the issues that you get in the middle part of your life. Call it my mid-life crisis, issues like aging and the fact that death is no longer this abstract that is over ...

East London Advertiser

East London Advertiser
Fri, 12 Sep 2014 01:26:15 -0700

The 8ft nude statues symbolising the Ages of Man, installed at the British Medical Association façade in The Strand, were considered by some as offensive when they were unveiled. The sculptures were destroyed in the 1930s. But attitudes to public ...

The Sunday Times

The Sunday Times
Tue, 26 Aug 2014 10:29:27 -0700

When the retailer says, “Hmm, Mummy normally spends around £10 — better put that back,” the kid will return with a bottle of Matsu, with no words, just big photos of the four ages of man reflecting the ages of the Tempranillo vines the wine came from ...


Mon, 08 Sep 2014 00:05:20 -0700

Think Erik Eriksen's "Eight Ages of Man" - and he meant men - which starts with Trust vs. Mistrust as the task of the child from birth to age 2. Then, having completed that step, you go on to the next stage. Really? No one has trust issues after age 2 ...


Wed, 10 Sep 2014 08:53:15 -0700

From Hamburg to Williamsburg, facial hair might be all the rage -- but this Wilkinson ad from Germany hits upon a kind of universal truth: Most babies hate beards. The spot takes us back through the ages of man (in a manner that reminds us a little of ...

The Stage

The Stage
Mon, 01 Sep 2014 01:03:12 -0700

Just published by Chris Grady Organisation (CGO), Grady's paperback Your Life in Theatre leads the reader through his or her career via Shakespeare's 'seven ages of man' speech. It is readably chatty, includes a pithy A-Z about preparation for drama ...
Broadway World
Thu, 04 Sep 2014 18:38:24 -0700

If such a stunt works--and it really does--the visual and thematic overlap evokes a modern-day "seven ages" of man and woman...The ensemble is excellent and meshes together seamlessly...The stories themselves might not be terribly original in isolation ...

Evening Standard

Evening Standard
Mon, 01 Sep 2014 03:24:42 -0700

We meet Axler rehearsing Shakespeare in the dressing room mirror, testing out the all the world's a stage/seven ages of man speech from As You Like It and demanding of himself: “Do you believe that? Was that real for you?” Then he gets locked out of ...

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