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This article is about mythological ages. For the "Seven Ages of Man" speech from Shakespeare's "As You Like It", see All the world's a stage. For the one-man show, see Ages of Man (play).
Lucas Cranach the Elder, The Golden Age

The Ages of Man are the stages of human existence on the Earth according to Greek mythology and its subsequent Roman interpretation.

Both Hesiod and Ovid offered accounts of the successive ages of humanity, which tend to progress from an original, long-gone age in which humans enjoyed a nearly divine existence to the current age of the writer, in which humans are beset by innumerable pains and evils. In the two accounts that survive from ancient Greece and Rome, this degradation of the human condition over time is indicated symbolically with metals of successively decreasing value.

Hesiod's Five Ages[edit]

Lucas Cranach the Elder, The Silver Age
Virgil Solis, The Iron Age

The first extant account of the successive ages of humanity comes from the Greek poet Hesiod's Works and Days (lines 109–201). His list is:

  • Golden Age – The Golden Age is the only age that falls within the rule of Cronus. Created by the immortals who live on Olympus, these humans were said to live among the gods, and freely mingled with them. Peace and harmony prevailed during this age. Humans did not have to work to feed themselves, for the earth provided food in abundance. They lived to a very old age but with a youthful appearance and eventually died peacefully. Their spirits live on as "guardians". Plato in Cratylus (397e) recounts the golden race of men who came first. He clarifies that Hesiod did not mean men literally made of gold, but good and noble. He describes these men as daemons upon the earth. Since δαίμονες (daimones) is derived from δαήμονες (daēmones, meaning knowing or wise), they are beneficent, preventing ills, and guardians of mortals.
  • Silver Age – The Silver Age and every age that follows fall within the rule of Cronus' successor and son, Zeus. Men in the Silver age lived for one hundred years under the dominion of their mothers. They lived only a short time as grown adults, and spent that time in strife with one another. During this Age men refused to worship the gods and Zeus destroyed them for their impiety. After death, humans of this age became "blessed spirits" of the underworld.
  • Bronze Age – Men of the Bronze Age were hardened and tough, as war was their purpose and passion. Zeus created these humans out of the ash tree. Their armor was forged of bronze, as were their homes, and tools. The men of this Age were undone by their own violent ways and left no named spirits; instead, they dwell in the "dank house of Hades". This Age came to an end with the flood of Deucalion.
  • Heroic Age – The Heroic Age is the one age that does not correspond with any metal. It is also the only age that improves upon the age it follows. It was the heroes of this Age who fought at Thebes and Troy. This race of humans died and went to Elysium.
  • Iron Age – Hesiod finds himself in the Iron Age. During this age humans live an existence of toil and misery. Children dishonor their parents, brother fights with brother and the social contract between guest and host (xenia) is forgotten. During this age might makes right, and bad men use lies to be thought good. At the height of this age, humans no longer feel shame or indignation at wrongdoing; babies will be born with gray hair and the gods will have completely forsaken humanity: "there will be no help against evil."

Ovid's Four Ages[edit]

The Roman poet Ovid (1st century BC – 1st century AD) tells a similar myth of Four Ages in Book 1.89–150 of the Metamorphoses. His account is similar to Hesiod's with the exception that he omits the Heroic Age. Ovid emphasizes the justice and peace that defined the Golden Age. He adds that in this age, men did not yet know the art of navigation and therefore did not explore the larger world, no man had knowledge of any arts but pre agriculture. In the Silver Age, Jupiter introduces the seasons and men consequentially learn the art of agriculture and architecture. In the Bronze Age, Ovid writes, men were prone to warfare, but not impiety. Finally, in the Iron Age, men demarcate nations with boundaries; they learn the arts of navigation and mining; they are warlike, greedy and impious. Truth, modesty and loyalty are nowhere to be found.

Related usage[edit]

These mythological ages are sometimes associated with historical timelines. In the chronology of Saint Jerome the Golden Age lasts ca. 1710 to 1674 BC, the Silver Age 1674 to 1628 BC, the Bronze Age 1628 to 1472 BC, the Heroic Age 1460 to 1103 BC, while Hesiod's Iron Age was considered as still ongoing by Saint Jerome in the 4th century AD.[1]

See also[edit]

Similar concepts include:


  1. ^ St. Jerome. "St. Jerome, Chronicle (2004-5). Preface of Jerome; Preface of Eusebius". Tertullian.org. Retrieved 2012-11-16. 

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ages_of_Man — Please support Wikipedia.
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648 news items

The Arts Desk

The Arts Desk
Sat, 28 Nov 2015 05:41:15 -0800

The monologue is staged by the director Dominic Cooke as if it had an incantatory power that it doesn't begin to possess, and one can't help feeling that Shakespeare made much the same points in a far more compressed manner in his "Seven ages of man" ...


Wed, 18 Nov 2015 09:15:00 -0800

In 1958 Cincinnati artist Carl Zimmerman designed and created the Seven Ages of Man murals that nestled against the windows of original Princeton High School's library. Like their mountain counterparts, Princeton's Seven Ages of Man Murals have ...

Patheos (blog)

Patheos (blog)
Thu, 26 Nov 2015 16:04:17 -0800

To observe the daily life of the full-time residents is to see the bracketing stages of the four ages of man on stark display, with a dozen or so young men fresh from college mingling with the old Jesuit Fathers in wheelchairs. The College building ...

Surf Europe

Surf Europe
Tue, 24 Nov 2015 06:09:00 -0800

Then what kind of kit you're running becomes vital. It is also important to consider which, of the ages of man, you represent. Or, if you prefer, how old you are. When you're say, 16-25, you're pretty much invincible, or, at the very least invincible ...

The Statesman

The Statesman
Sun, 22 Nov 2015 15:15:00 -0800

In this four-day theatre festival sans a stage actors of different drama groups will make their entrances and exits and perhaps act the seven ages of man right from the infant in the nurses's arms to an old man with spectacles on his nose and pouch on ...


Wed, 04 Nov 2015 10:01:27 -0800

... of the supporting players (Mark Benton's portly, northern clown Touchstone contrives to make his scenes laughter-free zones) praise is due elsewhere, particularly to Paul Chahidi as the melancholy Jacques, delivering the “Seven ages of man” speech ...

The Guardian

The Guardian
Sun, 08 Nov 2015 00:00:07 -0800

In describing the Seven Ages of Man, his hair seems to stand on end as each new disastrous epoch hoves into view. At the centre, Rosalie Craig and Patsy Ferran are a combustible duo. Craig has a fervent, poised androgyny as Rosalind: no swagger, all silk.
Broadway World
Mon, 16 Nov 2015 07:20:10 -0800

These were Titian's Diana and Actaeon, The Three Ages of Man, The Vendramin Family and Portrait of a Young Man; Holbein's Portrait of King Henry VIII; Memling's The Donne Triptychand The Wilton Diptych. The Chancellor agreed that should any of the ...

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