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Accropode blocks are man-made unreinforced concrete objects designed to resist the action of waves on breakwaters and coastal structures.

History[edit]

Accropode (1981)

The Accropode is a single-layer artificial armour unit developed by Sogreah in 1981. Accropode concrete armour units are applied in a single layer.

Ecopode (1996)

The Ecopode armour unit with a rock-like appearance was developed by Sogreah to enhance the natural appearance of concrete armourings above low water level. A patent application was filed in 1996. The color and type of rock-like appearance can be specified to match the surrounding landscape.

Accropode II (2004)

In 1999, Sogreah modified the original Accropode shape by chipping away excess materials and adding friction features in the form of small pyramids. A patent application was filed for this modified shape. In 2004 further modifications to the 1999 shape were made, resulting in the Accropode II. The shape modifications are intended to increase interlocking.

According to the developers, the modified shape results in factors comprising minimized rocking and settlement, maximized energy dissipation, reduced wave reflection and run-up/overtopping, and improved structural strength.

The Accropode technology has been applied on over 150 breakwater and seawall projects worldwide.

Design[edit]

Hydraulic stability[edit]

Specified stability coefficients at design stage:

  • Hudson’s design KD values:
    • 15 on trunk sections (16 for Accropode II)
    • 11.5 on roundheads (12.3 for Accropode II)
  • Van der Meer stability number:

NS = HS/(∆ Dn50)= 2.7 (2.8 for Accropode II)

where:

HS = significant wave height

∆ = relative mass density

Dn50 = nominal diameter

These coefficients are valid for armour slopes from 3H/2V to 4H/3V and for seabed slopes up to 3%.

The uneven surface of the Ecopode improves interlocking by friction, thereby increasing hydraulic stability.

Advanced Numerical Study[edit]

3D Numerical Simulation - MEDUS 2009

The Maritime Engineering Division of University of Salerno (MEDUS) developed a new procedure to study, with a more detailed and innovative approach, the interactions between maritime breakwaters (submerged or emerged) and the waves, by an integrated use of CAD and CFD software.

In the numerical simulations the filtration motion of the fluid within the interstices, which normally exist in a breakwater, is estimated by integrating the RANS equations, coupled with a RNG turbulence model, inside the voids, not using a classical equations for porous media.

The breakwaters were modelled, as it happens in the full size construction or in physical laboratory test, by overlapping three-dimensional elements and the numerical grid was thickened in such a way to have some computational nodes along the flow paths among the breakwater’s blocks (AccropodeTM, Core-locTM, Xbloc).

Implementation[edit]

Large Accropode units are lowered into a position offshore by aid of a crane.

Fork-lifting is effective for handling the small to medium size units, whereas large units are handled by sling. Placement for breakwaters generally requires a crane or a barge-mounted crane.

The units can be stored one on top of the other, and placed in a random attitude to obtain the specified packing density. The proper packing method provides an adequate coverage on breakwater slopes.

The use of a remote-release hook is used for placing the unit, while underwater placements may be enhanced by GPS, adhering to a theoretical grid, and allowing for reliable quality-assurance and quality-control procedures.

Diver inspecting blocks

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Gallery[edit]

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accropode — Please support Wikipedia.
A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
111 videos foundNext > 

ACCROPODE (TM) Marchica IDMer HD

ASSISTANCE and certification for ACCROPODE II (TM) in Marchica project. Moroco.

Busan, South Korea

Immersed tunnel project with ACCROPODE™ II armouring by CLI.

Breakwater construction - ACCROPODE™ 3

The Coda Echoscope-CMS software package overlays data onto a 3D model of the underwater section of the breakwater slope. A database of the already-laid ACCRO...

Breakwater construction - ACCROPODE™ 2

Coda Echoscope-CMS software aids real-time interpretation of the 3D image. This video shows how the software uses an automatic tracking algorithm to show the...

Breakwater construction - ACCROPODE™ 1

Raw Echoscope data in real-time showing a concrete armour protection block (ACCROPODE™) suspended from a crane. It is being lowered into position on a breakw...

IDMer ACCROPODE(TM) DUNG QUAT.mp4

La société IDMer assiste la société VAN OORD pour la pose des ACCROPODE(TM) sur la digue de DUNG QUAT au VIETNAM.

Breakwater construction diver support - ACCROPODE™ 4

During the construction of a breakwater, the concrete blocks (ACCROPODE™) which have been laid are inspected by divers. The real-time 3D view provided by the...

ACCROPODE shake test movie.avi

3D FEMDEM simulation using code Y3D, (Xiang, J, Munjiza A, Latham, J-P 2009, IJNME, 79(8), 946-978. doi: 10.1002/nme.2599) Full-scale shake test of 20 tonne ...

Didier Robert : Pose du 1er accropode de la Nouvelle Route du Littoral

http://www.inforeunion.net.

Port of Argeles, France

Breakwater renovated in 1998 by CLI using 4 and 6.3 m³ ACCROPODE™ units.

111 videos foundNext > 

3 news items

Construction Week Online

Construction Week Online
Mon, 07 Apr 2014 03:04:35 -0700

A 4km breakwater will be constructed to protect the harbors by using quarried rock material of 2.5mn tons and 26,000 special protective concrete units called Accropode II. A 2.5km quay wall will be constructed by using 12,000 concrete block units in ...

Hürriyet

Hürriyet
Thu, 03 Apr 2014 15:51:50 -0700

Bu mendireklerin koruma tabakası 26 bin adet 7'şer tonluk “Accropode II” isimli beton ünitelerden oluşacak. 7 metre seviyesine kadar taranacak limanlara daha büyük deniz araçları yanaşabilecek. Daha geniş yanaşma yeri sağlamak için 2.5 kilometrelik ...
 
Clicanoo
Wed, 26 Mar 2014 23:51:58 -0700

Carrière qui n'entre plus dans les plans de la Région. Ma position sur la Nouvelle Route du Littoral est donc claire, j'y suis favorable et je n'irai pas m'attacher à un accropode pour empêcher le début du chantier ! Que mes opposants préfèrent ...
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