||This article has an unclear citation style. (December 2012)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Somali and Arabic|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Mudulood, Habar Gidir, Karanle, other Hawiye clans|
Abgaal (var. Abgal; Somali: Abgaal, Arabic: أبغال) is a Somali clan, and part of the major Hawiye clan. Its members live in the Shabeellaha Dhexe, Galguduud, Banaadir, Mudug, Lower Shebelle, Middle Juba, and Jubbada Hoose[non-primary source needed][self-published source?] regions of Central and southern Somalia. Abgaals consider Xamar (Mogadishu) as their traditional territory.
Abgaal is one subclan of the Mudulood family, which also includes Wacdaan, Moobleen, and Ujajeen.
The emergence of the Imamate of Yaaquub in Mogadishu is related to the tyrannical rule of the Ajuran Sultanate in the interior, and the attraction of the growing Mogadishu wealth as a consequence of its thriving trade controlled by the Muzzaffar dynasty which was allied to the Ajuran in the interior .
Mogadishu Kingdom 900 – 1870 AD
First Sultan of the Mogadishu Kingdom Rulers from 700 – 1870 AD
- Sultan Daamey Ali (Xume) Axmed
- Sultan Cumar father of Abu bakr
- Sultan Abu Bakr
- Sultan Axmad I
- Sultan Maxammad I
- Sultan Axmad II
- Sultan Maxmud
- Sultan Cali
- Sultan Cismaan
- Sultan Muxammad II
- Sultan Axmad III-1860
- Sultan Hassan Abdulqadir Haji
There is no clear agreement on the clan and sub-clan structures and many lineages are omitted. The following listing is taken from the World Bank's Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics from 2005 and the United Kingdom's Home Office publication, Somalia Assessment 2001.
In the south central part of Somalia the World Bank shows the following clan tree:
- Abgal [sic]
- Habargidir (Habar Gidir)
- Sheikhal (Sheekhaal)
- Habar Gidir
- Imam Mohamud Imam Cumar ,Is the Imam Of Mudulood and also carries the dual position of The Traditional Imam of Hiraab.[ref].
Abgaal are perhaps the only Somali clan with its own special poetical genres – the guurow and the shirib – that differ from those of the other Somalis. The language of their poets is often characterised by an admixture of dialectal features. As an example of iyo with long -o, consider the following line from a famous guurow by Cabdulle Geedannaar. It scans properly (the same as a gabay) only if iyo counts as v-, which is also how the poet sings it:
- Baasayna haystaan iyo, marasho biid biid ah
- And they have money and fashionable dresses
Two major poetical genres of the Abgaal are:
In the farming areas of Middle and Lower Shabeelle women of the Abgaal and related clans often pound sorghum and other edible grains to the tune of a special kind of work song, known as a grain-pounding song or badar-tumid. A few examples of its lines are shown below:
- Kurta loogu shubaa
- Caana geel ku caddaaw
- Maakhiidaa la yiraa
- Keena-keena rag waaye
- Karisooy naag waaye
- (And) it is poured in their dish
- Become white with camel milk!
- She is said to be a good housewife
- Those who always bring things (keena-keene) are the men
- The one who cooks is the woman
This term is used in several areas inhabited by Somalis for different kinds of short songs, often connected with dancing. Typically, however, it refers to a genre of short verse composed by the Abgaal and related clans in the non-Maay-speaking regions of central Somalia. Shiribs are sung during clan or family meetings as well as other gatherings. Often they are improvised in poetic contests. The best surveys on this genre are Maxamad Cosoble M. and Caasha.
- Tagtaada tuug haddow yaqaan
- Afar walxaad o ta’ ku taal
- Dhiishaase ninba meel dhigtaa
- Dhicis lagama dhur sugoo
- If a thief knows your wealth
- Four things that are in it
- But everybody stores his own milk vessel in its proper place
- One doesn’t expect offspring from a stillbirth
Prominent members of the Abgaal
- Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, President of Somalia
- Nur Hassan Husein, former Prime Minister of the Transitional Federal Government
- Sharif Ahmed, former President of Somalia, former Commander-in-chief of the Islamic Courts Union
- Ali Mohammed Ghedi, Former Prime Minister of the Transitional Federal Government.
- Ali Mahdi Muhammad, president of Somalia from January – November 1991
- Hussein Kulmiye Afrah, vice-president of Somalia under the Siad Barre regime.
- Ahmed Maxamed Xasan, Lieutenant Colonel in the Somali Airforce who defused the mig-17 jet fighter bombs.
- Ali Geedi Shadoor, former Minister under the Siad Barre regime
- Dr. Hussein Ali Ahmed, former mayor of Mogadishu
- Salaad Gabeyre Kediye, Major General in the Somali Military, and Chairman of the Somali Revolution
- Ismail Jim'ale Osoble, Somali lawyer and Minister of Information in the government of Aden Abdulle Osman
- Mohamed Omar Habeb Dhere, warlord, governor and mayor of Banadir and Mogadishu
- Omar Muhamoud Finnish, leader of a splinter movement of the United Somali Congress/Somali Salvation Alliance
- General Daud Abdulle Hirsi, first commander-in-chief of the Somali National Army Forces
- Salad Ali Jelle, Deputy Minister of Defense of the Transitional Federal Government
- Musa Sudi Yalahow, warlord who served as Trade Minister in the Transitional Federal Government.
- Ali Jimale, educator at the City University of New York
- Mohamud Siad Togane, Somali-Canadian poet, professor, and political activist
- Adde Gabow (Mohamed Ali Hassan), politician,governor and mayor of Banadir and Mogadishu
- Abukar Umar Adani, Islamist, businessman who used to control the El-ma`an beach area which served as Mogadishu's port since the closure in 1995 of the city's main port.
- Bashir Raghe Shiiraar, secular warlord who was a Member of the dysfunctional US-backed Alliance for Peace and the Fight Against International Terrorism.
- Sheikh Ali Dhere, cleric and the head of the first Islamic Courts Union in northern Mogadishu in 1996.
- Farah Weheliye Addow (Sindiko), former Vice President of the Confederation of African Football.
- Abdulahi Ahmed Afrah, Minister of Commerce
- Abdi Mohamed Ulusso, Phd holder,intellectual and 2003 somali Presidential candidate.
- Hussein Hagi Bood, politician and Ex minister of National planning 1977–81
- Hilowle Imam Omar, politician, former co-chairman of the (Somali Reconciliation and Reconstruction Council) (SRRC) Party.
- Mohamed Ali Ameriko, Somali ambassador to Kenya.
- Ayub Daud, professional Footballer current playing Juventus
- Mohamed Omar Habeb Dhere, politician
- Hussein Sheikh Ahmed Kaddare, orthographer and the inventor of the Kadariya Script.
- Abdulle Geedannaar, poet
- Sheekh Ahmed Gabyow, poet
- Abukar Mahdi Mudey Qashow Mahdi, Business man & politician
- Mohamed Ali Hassan Macali, First Coach build Waxool Basketball team man & women
- Abdirahman Yabarow, Editor-in-Chief of the VOA Somali Service
- Hassan Mohamed Hussein Mungab, Mayor of Mogadishu
- "Inter-clan Fighting in Middle Jubba". Mareeg Online. 11 March 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2011.
- "SUPPORT FROM WAAX IYO WAADI TO WAGOSHA MOVEMENT.". Retrieved 10 November 2011.
- Jimale Ahmed, Ali (1 January 2002). "Nuruddin Farah and the (Re)Writing of Somali Historiography: Narrative as a Politically Symbolic Act". In Wright, Derek. Emerging Perspectives on Nuruddin Farah. Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press. p. 234. ISBN 978-0-86543-919-1. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- Ahmed, Ali Jimale (1995). The Invention of Somalia. Lawrenceville, New Jersey: The Red Sea Press. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-932415-99-8. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- Worldbank, Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics, January 2005, Appendix 2, Lineage Charts, p.55 Figure A-1
- Country Information and Policy Unit, Home Office, Great Britain, Somalia Assessment 2001, Annex B: Somali Clan Structure, p. 43
- Worldbank, Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics, January 2005, Appendix 2, Lineage Charts, p.56 Figure A-2
- Worldbank, Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics, January 2005, Appendix 2, Lineage Charts, p.57 Figure A-3
- Interview with Ahmed Mohamed Hassan, the former Somali Air Force pilot...... at the Wayback Machine (archived July 1, 2008)
- Said S. Samatar (2001). "Somalia: Africa's Problem Child?". Mudug Online. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- "Socdaalkii Duqa Magaalda Muqdisho Dr Xuseen Cali Axmed ee uu Scandenevianka ku maarayey 15 –20 febaraayo oo naqoday mid lagu guuleeeystay.". Mudulood.com (in Somali). Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- John Pike (2006-03-22). "SOMALIA: Twelve killed in heavy fighting in Mogadishu". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- A. Duale Sii'arag (15 Nov 2005). "The Birth and Rise of Al-Ittihad Al-Islami in the Somali Inhabited Regions in the Horn of Africa". Newbanadir.com. Archived from the original on June 20, 2007. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- "Somalia: Farah Addo elected chairman of football federation". Mareeg.com. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- "CFS". Canadian Friends of Somalia. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- John Pike (2006-08-21). "SOMALIA: Premier appoints new cabinet". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- "Rival Somali gunmen call it quits | News | Mail & Guardian". Mg.co.za. 2002-01-01. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- "Warlords agree on Mogadishu authority". BBC News. 22 December 1999. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- "Declaration on Cessation of Hostilities and the Structures and Principles of the Somalia National Reconciliation Process (S/2002/1359) | ReliefWeb". Reliefweb.int. 2002-12-13. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- [dead link]
- "PROFILE: Dr. Mohamed Ali "Ameriko"". Banadir.com. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
- Laitin, David D. (1 May 1977). Politics, Language, and Thought: The Somali Experience. University of Chicago Press. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-226-46791-7. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- Biber, Douglas; Finegan, Edward (7 December 1993). Sociolinguistic Perspectives on Register. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 213. ISBN 978-0-19-535932-9. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
- R. J. Hayward; I. M. Lewis (31 December 1996). Voice and Power. Taylor & Francis. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-203-98539-7.