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The 4th millennium BC saw major changes in human culture. It marked the beginning of the Bronze Age and the invention of writing, which played a major role in starting recorded history.

The city states of Sumer and the kingdom of Egypt were established and grew to prominence. Agriculture spread widely across Eurasia. World population in the course of the millennium doubled, approximately from 7 to 14 million people.



The Neolithic
Fertile Crescent
Levantine corridor
Heavy Neolithic
Shepherd Neolithic
Trihedral Neolithic
Qaraoun culture
Tahunian culture
Yarmukian Culture
Halaf culture
Halaf-Ubaid Transitional period
Ubaid culture
Pre-Pottery (A, B)
Tell Aswad
Boian culture
Cernavodă culture
Coțofeni culture
Cucuteni-Trypillian culture
Dudeşti culture
Gorneşti culture
Gumelniţa–Karanovo culture
Hamangia culture
Linear Pottery culture
Malta Temples
Petreşti culture
Sesklo culture
Tisza culture
Tiszapolgár culture
Usatovo culture
Varna culture
Vinča culture
Vučedol culture
Neolithic Transylvania
Neolithic Southeastern Europe
Peiligang culture
Pengtoushan culture
Beixin culture
Cishan culture
Dadiwan culture
Houli culture
Xinglongwa culture
Xinle culture
Zhaobaogou culture
Hemudu culture
Daxi culture
Majiabang culture
Yangshao culture
Hongshan culture
Dawenkou culture
Liangzhu culture
Majiayao culture
Qujialing culture
Longshan culture
Baodun culture
Shijiahe culture
Erlitou culture
South Asia

farming, animal husbandry
pottery, metallurgy, wheel
circular ditches, henges, megaliths
Neolithic religion


Environmental changes[edit]

Holocene Epoch
Preboreal (10.3 ka – 9 ka)
Boreal (9 ka – 7.5 ka)
Atlantic (7.5 ka5 ka)
Subboreal (5 ka2.5 ka)
Subatlantic (2.5 ka – present)
Main article: Atlantic (period)

Based on studies by glaciologist Lonnie Thompson, professor at Ohio State University and researcher with the Byrd Polar Research Center, a number of indicators shows there was a global change in climate 5,200 years ago, probably due to a drop in solar energy output as hypothesized by Ohio State University.[1]

  • Plants buried in the Quelccaya Ice Cap in the Peruvian Andes demonstrate the climate had shifted suddenly and severely to capture the plants and preserve them until now.[2]
  • A man trapped in an Alpine glacier ("Ötzi the Iceman") is frozen until his discovery in 1991.[3]
  • Tree rings from Ireland and England show this was their driest period.[3]
  • Ice core records showing the ratio of two oxygen isotopes retrieved from the ice fields atop Africa's Mount Kilimanjaro, a proxy for atmospheric temperature at the time snow fell.[3]
  • Major changes in plant pollen uncovered from lakebed cores in South America.[3]
  • Record lowest levels of methane retrieved from ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica.[3]
  • End of the Neolithic Subpluvial, start of desertification of Sahara (35th century BC). North Africa shifts from a habitable region to a barren desert.[3]

Significant people[edit]

Inventions, discoveries, introductions[edit]

Sumerian Cuneiform Script


Calendars and chronology[edit]



  1. ^ Major Climate Change Occurred 5,200 Years Ago: Evidence Suggests That History Could Repeat Itself at the Wayback Machine (archived January 15, 2008)
  2. ^ Thompson, L. G.; Mosley-Thompson, E.; Brecher, H.; Davis, M.; León, B.; Les, D.; Lin, P. -N.; Mashiotta, T.; Mountain, K. (2006). "Inaugural Article: Abrupt tropical climate change: Past and present". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103 (28): 10536. Bibcode:2006PNAS..10310536T. doi:10.1073/pnas.0603900103.  edit
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Major Climate Change Occurred 5,200 Years Ago: Evidence Suggests That History Could Repeat Itself". Science Daily. Retrieved 19 December 2010. 
  4. ^ Federico Lara Peinado, Universidad Complutense de Madrid: "La Civilización Suemria.". Historia 16, 1999.
  5. ^ Roberts, J: "History of the World.". Penguin, 1994.
  6. ^ See horoscope number 1 in Dr. B.V. Raman (1991). Notable Horoscopes. Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0901-7. 
  7. ^ Arun K. Bansal's research published in Outlook India, September 13, 2004. "Krishna (b. July 21, 3228 BC)". 
  8. ^ Annals of the World, as well as the above sources

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4 news items

Smithsonian (blog)
Wed, 27 Aug 2014 11:07:28 -0700

Previous discoveries suggest that wine grapes were first grown in the neighboring mountains and moved south into the region around Tel Kabri by the middle of the 4th millennium B.C. Records from the time show that by the Middle Bronze Age, Jordan ...
Sat, 16 Aug 2014 14:20:46 -0700

It dates back to the early 4th millennium BC. TellBrakTW-W Tell Brak (Photo: Wikipedia Commons). APSA is headquartered in Gaziantep, Turkey, and, along with their missions in Syria, the organization works with the culture minister of Turkey to ...

Asbarez Armenian News

Asbarez Armenian News
Tue, 19 Aug 2014 13:43:38 -0700

In August 2013 Asbarez published my report, “Shengavit Historical and Archaeological Culture Preserve 2011-2013.” That report described the 4th millennium B.C. Shengavit archaeological site, its museum, and its neglect by some of those responsible for ...

Industry Today (press release)

Industry Today (press release)
Thu, 28 Aug 2014 07:15:00 -0700

Glass mosaic is one of the oldest, most treasured artistic and decorative forms, dating back to the 4th millennium BC, and surviving archaeological examples testify to its lasting properties. Yet it is a hard surface finish that is sometimes overlooked ...

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