digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:

Agriculture

Applied sciences

Arts

Belief

Business

Chronology

Culture

Education

Environment

Geography

Health

History

Humanities

Language

Law

Life

Mathematics

Nature

People

Politics

Science

Society

Technology

449th Air Expeditionary Group
449thAEG-C130.jpg
Airmen from the 449th Expeditionary Rescue Squadron prepare an HC-130 for a Combined Task Force-Horn of Africa mission.
Active 1943–1946; 1963-1977; Unknown after 2003
Country  United States
Branch  United States Air Force
Part of United States Air Forces Europe
Nickname Flying Horsemen World War II
Motto Nunquam non Paratus (Never Unprepared)
Engagements Mediterranean Theater of Operations
Global War on Terrorism
Decorations Distinguished Unit Citation
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award
Insignia
449th Air Expeditionary Group Emblem 449th Air Expeditionary Group emblem.PNG
World War II Tail Marking[1] Triangle within a White Disc
A pararescueman from the 131st Rescue Squadron jumps from an HC-130 during a training mission recently. The 131st works with the 449th Aor Expeditionary Group

The 449th Air Expeditionary Group (449 AEG) is a provisional United States Air Force unit assigned to the Third Air Force supporting United States Africa Command. It is stationed at Camp Lemonnier, Djibouti.

Its most recent assignment was to support the Africa Command and Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa supporting varied U.S. objectives in the area.

The group begin as the World War II 449th Bombardment Group (Heavy) in the spring of 1943. The group prepared for combat with Consolidated B-24 Liberator heavy bombers. It moved to Italy by January 1944, and was assigned to the 47th Bombardment Wing of Fifteenth Air Force. The group operated primarily as a strategic bombardment organization. The group earned two Distinguished Unit Citations for its combat actions. After returning to the United States at the end of May 1945, the unit was assigned to Second Air Force, transitioned to B-29 Superfortresses, and was redesignated a Very Heavy bomb group.

In the postwar era, the 449th Bombardment Group was one of the original ten bombardment groups assigned to Strategic Air Command (SAC). The unit was inactivated on 4 August 1946 at Grand Island Army Air Field, Nebraska and its mission, aircraft, and personnel were transferred to the 28th Bombardment Group which was simultaneously activated.

The 449th Bombardment Wing, Heavy was activated in 1963 at Kincheloe AFB, Michigan, assuming the mission, aircraft and equipment of the 4239th Strategic Wing and trained for strategic operations flying Boeing B-52 Stratofortresses and Boeing KC-135 Stratotankers as part of Strategic Air Command. The wing inactivated in 1977 with the closure of Kincheloe AFB.

In 1985 the group and the wing were consolidated, but remained inactive. In 2003 the unit was redesignated as the 449th Air Expeditionary Group and was assigned to United States Air Forces Europe (USAFE) to activate or inactivate as needed. Since 2008, the unit has controlled USAF activities in the Horn of Africa.

Mission[edit]

The 449th Air Expeditionary Group is assigned to United States Air Forces Europe to activate or inactivate as needed for operations. The group is currently located at Camp Lemonnier, Djibouti. The 449th provides combat search and rescue for the Combined Joint Task Force - Horn of Africa. The group has been assigned various expeditionary rescue squadrons while located in Djibouti. It is currently composed of HC-130P Hercules aircraft assigned to the 81st Expeditionary Rescue Squadron and pararescuemen from the 82nd Expeditionary Rescue Squadron.[2] While deployed the group performed both combat and civil search and rescue missions.[3]

In November 2006, While conducting an air-land mission, Staff Sergeant Joshua C. Sevilla, assigned to the group's 79th Expeditionary Rescue Squadron and his crew were forcibly detained by at El Fasher Airport, Sudan by members of the Sudanese military who accused them of espionage and demanded the surrender of all crew members and the aircraft. SSG Sevilla denied a force of more than 150 Sudanese soldiers the ability to control the aircraft, enabling all 17 American detainees to return.[4]

History[edit]

World War II[edit]

Emblem of the 449th Bombardment Group
717th Bomb Squadron B-24J 42-51327 at Bruning AAF just after delivery from Douglas-Tulsa where it was manufactured.

The group was constituted as 449th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 6 April 1943 and activated on 1 May at Davis-Monthan Field, Arizona.[5] its original components were the 716th,[6] 717th,[7] 718th,[8] and 719th Bombardment Squadrons.[9]

It was assigned to II Bomber Command for combat training with B-24 Liberators. The first morning report was issued on 27 May 1943and listed as 52 officers and 33 enlisted men available for duty. Over the next seven months the Group steadily increased to full strength as the training program progressed.[citation needed] In July 1943 the group moved to Alamogordo Army Airfield, New Mexico[5] where second phase training was performed.[citation needed] In September the group again relocated, this time to Bruning Army Air Field, Nebraska.[5] The move to Bruning was completed on 18 September 1943. At that time the 449th consisted of a total complement of 184 officers and 1,203 enlisted men. At Bruning the group received its new operational Consolidated B-24 Liberators.[citation needed]

By December 1943, training was complete and the 449th was ordered overseas to the Mediterranean Theater of Operations (MTO). Each crew flew its aircraft overseas by the South Atlantic Transport Route which took them to Morrison Field, Florida, then to Puerto Rico and Brazil. The Atlantic crossing was made from Brazil to Dakar, French West Africa. From Dakar the planes flew north to Tunis by way of Marrakech. From Tunis they flew to their forward operating base at Grottaglie Airfield near Taranto, Italy.[citation needed] The 449th was assigned to the 47th Bombardment Wing of the Fifteenth Air Force.[10]

718th Bomb Squadron B-24J 42-64362 in flight over Europe, 1944

The group operated primarily as a strategic bombardment organization, attacking such targets as oil refineries, communications centers, aircraft factories, and industrial areas in Italy, Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, Albania, and Greece.[5]

The group received a Distinguished Unit Citation (DUC) for a mission on 4 April 1944 when the group, flying without escort, raided marshalling yards in Bucharest. Although heavily outnumbered by German fighters, the group succeeded not only in bombing the target but also in destroying many of the enemy interceptors. Received another DUC for action on 9 July 1944 when the group flew through heavy smoke and intense enemy fire to attack an oil refinery at Ploesti. Other operations of the group included bombing gun emplacements in southern France in preparation for the invasion in August 1944, and attacking troop concentrations, bridges, and viaducts in April 1945 to assist Allied forces in northern Italy.[5]

The group was ordered back to the United States during May after the German capitulation. The 449th was redesignated a Very Heavy bombardment group and was programmed for very long range strategic bombardment operations against the Japanese Home Islands using B-29 Superfortresses. Many personnel were demobilized upon arrival at the port of embarkation; a small cadre of key personnel was formed and the group was then established at Sioux Falls Army Air Field, South Dakota in late May where the group was reformed with new personnel.[citation needed]

After a period of organization, the group moved to Dalhart Army Air Field, Texas, where initial training was conducted with former II Bomber Command B-17 Flying Fortress; B-25 Mitchells and some B-29s.[5] As the group was so far along in training, it moved to Grand Island Army Air Field, Nebraska in September where it became a regular unit of Continental Air Forces, receiving some of the last new B-29 aircraft manufactured by Boeing.[citation needed] In November, its 719th squadron was converted to a reconnaissance unit and redesignated the 46th Reconnaissance Squadron, Very Long Range (Photographic-Weather).[9]

On 21 March 1946, the 449th Bombardment Group became one of the initial ten B-29 groups assigned to Strategic Air Command (SAC). The group was inactivated on 4 August 1946[5] and its personnel, mission, and equipment were reassigned to the 28th Bombardment Group.[11]

Strategic Air Command[edit]

Emblem of the 4239th Strategic Wing

4239th Strategic Wing[edit]

The origins of the 449th Bombardment Wing began on 1 July 1959 when SAC established the 4239th Strategic Wing (SW) at Kincheloe AFB, Michigan, an Air Defense Command (ADC) base, whose host was the 507th Fighter Group (Air Defense ) and assigned it to the 40th Air Division[12] as part of SAC's plan to disperse its Boeing B-52 Stratofortress heavy bombers over a larger number of bases, thus making it more difficult for the Soviet Union to knock out the entire fleet with a surprise first strike.[13] The wing remained a headquarters only until 1 June 1961 when the 70th Munitions Maintenance Squadron was activated to oversee the wing's special weapons.

The 93d Bombardment Squadron (BS), consisting of 15 Boeing B-52 Stratofortresses, moved to Kincheloe from Homestead AFB, Florida where it had been one of the three squadrons of the 19th Bombardment Wing in August 1961.[14] At the same time three maintenance squadrons and a squadron to provide security for special weapons were activated and assigned to the wing. Starting in 1960, one third of the squadron's aircraft were maintained on fifteen minute alert, fully fueled and ready for combat to reduce vulnerability to a Soviet missile strike. This was increased to half the squadron's aircraft in 1962.[15] The 4239th (and later the 449th) continued to maintain an alert commitment until the 449th was inactivated in 1977. In 1962, the wing's bombers began to be equipped with the GAM-77 Hound Dog and the GAM-72 Quail air-launched cruise missiles, The 4239th Airborne Missile Maintenance Squadron was activated in November to maintain these missiles.

However, SAC Strategic Wings could not carry a permanent history or lineage[16] and SAC looked for a way to make its Strategic Wings permanent.

449th Bombardment Wing Emblem

449th Bombardment Wing[edit]

In 1962, in order to perpetuate the lineage of many currently inactive bombardment units with illustrious World War II records, Headquarters SAC received authority from Headquarters USAF to discontinue its Major Command controlled (MAJCON) strategic wings that were equipped with combat aircraft and to activate Air Force controlled (AFCON) units, most of which were inactive at the time which could carry a lineage and history. As a result the 4239th SW was replaced by the 449th Bombardment Wing, Heavy[17] which assumed its mission, personnel, and equipment on 1 February 1963.[18]

In the same way the 716th Bombardment Squadron, one of the unit's World War II historical bomb squadrons, replaced the 93d BS. The 70th Munitions Maintenance Squadron was reassigned to the 449th. Under the Dual Deputate organization,[19] all flying and maintenance squadrons were directly assigned to the wing, so no operational group was activated. The 4239th's maintenance and security squadrons were replaced by ones with the 449th numerical designation of the new wing. Each of the new units assumed the personnel, equipment, and mission of its predecessor. In July 1963, the wing added an air refueling capability when the 908th Air Refueling Squadron, equipped with Boeing KC-135 Stratotankers, was organized and assigned to the wing.[17]

The 449th continued the mission of strategic bombardment training and contributing to SAC's worldwide refueling capability. It supported SAC combat operations in Southeast Asia by furnishing KC-135 aircraft and crews from November 1965 through December 1975 and B-52 crews between May 1968 and June 1975.[17]

Although the number of ADC interceptor squadrons remained almost constant in the early 1960s, attrition (and the fact that production lines closed in 1961) caused a gradual drop in the number of planes assigned to fighter interceptor squadrons, from 24 to typically 18 by 1964 and to 12 by 1967.[20] Because of this reduction, in December 1965, the Department of Defense announced it would close Kincheloe by October 1971. ADC terminated its interceptor mission at Kincheloe and inactivated its 507th Fighter Wing in 1968.[21] It then organized the 4609th Air Base Group as a temporary host organization for the base. However, in May 1971, the decision to close the base was reversed and it was instead transferred to SAC, which activated the 449th Combat Support Group as the new host organization and assigned it to the wing. This was only a six-year reprieve, as the base was closed on 30 September 1977 as part of an ongoing reduction in force in the USAF following the end of the Vietnam War. The B-52s and KC-135s of the 449th were reassigned to other SAC units, and the wing was inactivated[17] concurrent with the closure of the base.

Lineage[edit]

449th Bombardment Group[edit]

  • Constituted as 449th Bombardment Group (Heavy) on 6 April 1943
Activated on 1 May 1943.
Redesignated 449th Bombardment Group, Heavy ca. August 1943
Redesignated 449th Bombardment Group, Very Heavy on 29 May 1945
Inactivated on 4 August 1946
  • Consolidated with 449th Bombardment Wing as 449th Bombardment Wing on 31 January 1984[22] (remained inactive)

449th Air Expeditionary Group[edit]

  • Constituted as 449th Fighter-Bomber Wing on 23 March 1953
Redesignated 449th Bombardment Wing, Heavy on 15 November 1962 and activated (not organized)
Organized on 1 February 1963
Inactivated on 30 September 1977.
  • Consolidated with 449th Bombardment Group on 31 January 1984[22] (remained inactive)
  • Redesignated 449th Air Expeditionary Group and converted to provisional status in 2003.
Activated and inactivated on undetermined dates.

Assignments[edit]

Stations[edit]

Components[edit]

Groups[edit]

  • 449th Combat Support Group, 30 June 1971 – 30 Sep 1977

Operational Squadrons[edit]

Support Squadrons[edit]

  • 70th Munitions Maintenance Squadron: 1 July 1963 – 30 September 1972
  • 449th Airborne Missile Maintenance Squadron: 1 July 1963 – 30 Jun 1975
  • 449th Armament & Electronics Maintenance Squadron: 1 July 1963 – 30 September 1977
  • 449th Combat Defense Squadron (later 449th Security Police Squadron): 1 July 1963 – 30 June 1971
  • 449th Field Maintenance Squadron: 1 July 1963 – 30 September 1977
  • 449th Munitions Maintenance Squadron: 1 October 1972 – 30 September 1977
  • 449th Organizational Maintenance Squadron: 1 July 1963 – 30 September 1977

Other[edit]

  • USAF Hospital, Kincheloe: 30 June 1971 - 30 September 1977

Aircraft and missiles[edit]

Awards and Campaigns[edit]

Award streamer Award Dates Notes
Streamer PUC Army.PNG Distinguished Unit Citation 4 April 1944 Bucharest, Rumania[5]
Streamer PUC Army.PNG Distinguished Unit Citation 9 July 1944 Ploesti, Rumania[5]
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award Streamer.jpg Air Force Outstanding Unit Award 1 July 1974 - 30 June 1976 [17]
Campaign Streamer Theater Campaign Notes
World War II - American Campaign Streamer (Plain).png American Theater of World War II [5]
Streamer EAMEC.PNG Mediterranean Theater of Operations Air Combat EAME Theater [5]
Streamer EAMEC.PNG Mediterranean Theater of Operations Air Offensive, Europe [5]
Streamer EAMEC.PNG Mediterranean Theater of Operations Naples-Foggia [5]
Streamer EAMEC.PNG Mediterranean Theater of Operations Anzio [5]
Streamer EAMEC.PNG Mediterranean Theater of Operations Rome-Arno [5]
Streamer EAMEC.PNG Mediterranean Theater of Operations Normandy [5]
Streamer EAMEC.PNG Mediterranean Theater of Operations Northern France [5]
Streamer EAMEC.PNG Mediterranean Theater of Operations Southern France [5]
Streamer EAMEC.PNG Mediterranean Theater of Operations North Apennines [5]
Streamer EAMEC.PNG Mediterranean Theater of Operations Rhineland [5]
Streamer EAMEC.PNG Mediterranean Theater of Operations Central Europe [5]
Streamer EAMEC.PNG Mediterranean Theater of Operations Po Valley [5]

See also[edit]


References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Watkins, Robert A. (2009). Battle Colors: Insignia and Aircraft Markings of the U.S. Army Air Force In World War II. Volume IV, European-African-Middle Eastern Theater of Operations. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Shiffer Publishing. pp. 92–93. ISBN 978-0-7643-3401-6. OCLC 791362037. 
  2. ^ USAFE/AFRICA Public Affairs Office, USAFE Factsheet, U.S. Forces Africa 8/27/2002 (retrieved May 26, 2013)
  3. ^ Drake, Corey 449th Air Expeditionary Group Changes Hands in Djibouti Mar 02, 2009 (retrieved May 26, 2013)
  4. ^ Military Times Hall of Valor, Joshua C. Sevilla (retrieved May 26, 2013)
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1983) [1961]. Air Force Combat Units of World War II (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. pp. 323–324. ISBN 978-0-912799-02-5. OCLC 9644436. 
  6. ^ Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1982) [1969]. Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. pp. 715–716. OCLC 9018678. 
  7. ^ Maurer, Combat Squadrons, pp. 716-717
  8. ^ Maurer, Combat Squadrons, pp. 717-718
  9. ^ a b Maurer, Combat Squadrons, p. 718
  10. ^ Maurer, Combat Units, pp. 391-393
  11. ^ Maurer, Combat Units, pp. 80-81
  12. ^ "Factsheet 40 Air Division". Air Force Historical Research Agency. 5 October 2007. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 4 April 2014. 
  13. ^ "Abstract (Unclassified), Vol 1, History of Strategic Air Command, Jan-Jun 1957 (Secret)". Air Force History Index. Retrieved 4 March 2014. 
  14. ^ Maurer, Combat Squadrons, pp. 311-312
  15. ^ "Abstract (Unclassified), History of the Strategic Bomber since 1945 (Top Secret, downgraded to Secret)". Air Force History Index. 1 April 1975. Retrieved 4 March 2014. 
  16. ^ Ravenstein, Charles A. (1984). A Guide to Air Force Lineage and Honors (2d, Revised ed.). Maxwell AFB, AL: USAF Historical Research Center. p. 12. 
  17. ^ a b c d e Ravenstein, Charles A. (1984). Air Force Combat Wings, Lineage & Honors Histories 1947-1977. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. pp. 244–245. ISBN 978-0-912799-12-4. LCCN 83024954. OCLC 10207373. 
  18. ^ The 449th Wing had been constituted nine years earlier as a fighter unit but never activated. It continued, through temporary bestowal, the history, and honors of the World War II 449th Bombardment Group. It was also entitled to retain the honors (but not the history or lineage) of the 4239th. This temporary bestowal ended in January 1984, when the wing and group were consolidated into a single unit.
  19. ^ Under this plan flying squadrons reported to the wing Deputy Commander for Operations and maintenance squadrons reported to the wing Deputy Commander for Maintenance
  20. ^ McMullen, Richard F. (1964) "The Fighter Interceptor Force 1962-1964" ADC Historical Study No. 27, Air Defense Command, Ent Air Force Base, CO (Confidential, declassified 22 Mar 2000), pp. 41, 43-45
  21. ^ Ravenstein Combat Wings, p. 274
  22. ^ a b Department of the Air Force/MPM Letter 539q, 31 January 1984, Subject: Consolidation of Units

Bibliography[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Air Force Historical Research Agency.

Further Reading[edit]

  • Caplan, Laura (2004). Domain of Heroes: The Medical Journal, Writings, and Story of Dr. Leslie Caplan. Edina, Minnesota: self-published. OCLC 755921442. 
  • Currier, Donald R. (Lt Col USAF, ret.) (1992). 50 Mission Crush. Shippensburg, Pennsylvania: Burd Street Press. ISBN 978-0-942597-43-1. LCCN 92008964. OCLC 231434413. 
  • Gann, Harvey E. (1995). Escape I Must, World War II Prisoner of War in Germany. Austin, Texas: Woodburner Press. ISBN 978-0-964312-61-6. LCCN 95060566. OCLC 33630053. 
  • O'Neil, Myles (1993). Ploesti raiders : B-24 bomber crew member, 719th Bomb Sqd., 449th Bomb Group, 47th Wing, 15th Air Force, Italy, WW II. Chicago, Illinois: Adams Press. LCCN 93071771. OCLC 47054576. 
  • Rust, Kenn C. (1976). Fifteenth Air Force Story. Temple City, California: Historical Aviation Album. ISBN 978-0-911852-79-0. LCCN 76017673. OCLC 2644131. 
  • Shepard, D. William (1976). Of Men and Wings: The First 100 Missions of the 449th Bomb, January to July 1944. Temple City, California: Historical Aviation Album. ISBN 978-0-911852-79-0. LCCN 76017673. OCLC 2644131. 
  • Turner, Damon, ed. (1985). A History of the 449th Bomb Group, Forty-seventh Wing, Fifteenth Air Force: A Group History. Volume I Tucson to Grottaglie. Collegiate Press. 
  • Turner, Damon, ed. (1985). A History of the 449th Bomb Group, Forty-seventh Wing, Fifteenth Air Force: A Group History. Volume II From Grottaglie. Collegiate Press. 
  • 449th Bomb Group Association, ed. (1989). A History of the 449th Bomb Group, Forty-seventh Wing, Fifteenth Air Force: A Group History. Volume III Grottaglie and Home. Collegiate Press. 
  • 449th Bomb Group Association, ed. (2000). A History of the 449th Bomb Group, Forty-seventh Wing, Fifteenth Air Force: A Group History. Volume IV Maximum Effort. Panama City, FL: Norfield Publishing. 
  • 449th Bomb Group Association, ed. (2001). The Planes of the 449th Bomb Group in World War II. Panama City, Florida: Norfield Publishing. 
  • Yedlin, Benedict; Jeffers, Alexander (2002). Brother Men Who Fly: A World War II Gunner's Personal Quest. Princeton, New Jersey: Liberator Crew Productions. ISBN 978-0-967533-31-5. LCCN 2004555330. OCLC 52232362. 

External links[edit]


Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/449th_Air_Expeditionary_Group — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.

We're sorry, but there's no news about "449th Air Expeditionary Group" right now.

Loading

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!