|23d Fighter Group|
23d Wing emblem
|Active||1942–1946, 1946–1949, 1951–1952, 1955–1959, 1991–1997. 2006-present|
|Branch||United States Air Force|
|Role||Close Air Support|
48 A-10C aircraft
|Garrison/HQ||Moody Air Force Base, Georgia|
|Decorations||Distinguished Unit Citation|
|Colonel Derek "Woody" Oaks|
|Col. Robert L. Scott
General Bruce K. Holloway
Brig, Gen. David Lee "Tex" Hill
The 23d Fighter Group (23 FG) is a United States Air Force unit. It is assigned to the 23d Wing and stationed at Moody Air Force Base, Georgia. For the 23d Fighter Group that existed from 1997 to 2006, see the Article on the 23d Wing.
The 23d Fighter Group was established in World War II as the 23d Pursuit Group of the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF). Redesignated the 23d Fighter Group before its activation, the group was formed in China on 4 July 1942, as a component of the China Air Task Force and received a small cadre of volunteer personnel from the simultaneously disbanded 1st American Volunteer Group (AVG) – the "Flying Tigers" of the Chinese Air Force.
To carry on the traditions and commemorate the history of the AVG, aircraft of the USAF 23d Fighter Group carry the same "Shark Teeth" nose art of the AVG's Curtiss P-40 Warhawks, along with the "FT" (Flying Tiger) tail code. The 23d Fighter Group's aircraft are the only United States Air Force aircraft currently authorized to carry this distinctive and historical aircraft marking.
- 1 Overview
- 2 History
- 3 Lineage
- 4 Notes and citations
- 5 References & Bibliography
- 6 External links
Currently based at Moody Air Force Base, Georgia, the group is assigned as one of two operations groups of the 23d Wing at Moody. Both organizations serve as part of the Ninth Air Force and Air Combat Command. The 23d Fighter Group's primary missions are forward air control, close air support, air interdiction and combat search and rescue operations.
World War II
Media related to United States Army Air Forces 23d Fighter Group at Wikimedia Commons
By 15 June 1942, under orders from Tenth Air Force, an advance cadre of pilots and aircraft had proceeded over the "Hump" route to Kunming, China, for combat familiarization. Without ceremony, the 23d Fighter Group was activated 4 July 1942, marking the first such activation of a U.S. fighter unit on a field of battle in World War II.[nb 1]
Claire L. Chennault, meanwhile, had been recalled to active duty with the rank of brigadier general and placed at the head of the China Air Task Force (later to become Fourteenth Air Force). The 23d Fighter Group, a component of the CATF, was assigned three squadrons: the 74th, 75th, and 76th Fighter Squadrons.
The group inherited the mission of the 1st American Volunteer Group "Flying Tigers". Five of Chennault's staff officers, five pilots and 19 ground crewmen entered the AAF and became members of the 23d Fighter Group. Approximately 25 AVG pilots, still in civilian status, volunteered to extend their contracts for two weeks to train the new group following the disbanding of their organization. The original aircraft of the group were a mixture of P-40s from a batch of 50 sent to China for the AVG between January and June 1942, and a follow-up shipment of 68 P-40Es transferred from the 51st Fighter Group in India and flown over the Hump by personnel to be assigned to the 23d, also mostly from the 51st FG.
Others from the ranks of the original Flying Tigers left China when their contracts expired, although some returned to duty later with the Army Air Forces in the China-Burma-India Theater. In addition to inheriting operational responsibilities from the AVG, the 23d Fighter Group also benefited from the knowledge and experience of the AVG pilots, and took on the nickname of the disbanded unit.
Col. Robert L. Scott Jr., already in India as a commander of the Hump operation, became the first commander of the 23d Fighter Group. He would later author the military classic, "God Is My Co-Pilot." On the very first day of its activation, the 23d Fighter Group engaged three successive waves of enemy aircraft and promptly recorded the destruction of five enemy aircraft with no losses to itself.
The next three years saw the 23d Fighter Group involved in much of the action over southeast and southwest Asia. It provided air defense for the Chinese terminus of the Hump route, but its operations extended beyond China to Burma, French Indochina and as far as Taiwan. The unit helped pioneer a number of innovative fighter and fighter-bomber tactics. The Group used its so-called "B-40" (P-40's carrying 1,000-pound bombs) to destroy Japanese bridges and kill bridge repair crews, sometimes demolishing their target with a single bomb. The unit gained another increase in capability with its conversion to the North American P-51 "Mustang" aircraft in November 1943.
Representative of the encounters undertaken by this small and often ill-equipped group was the defense against a major Japanese push down the Hsiang Valley in Hunan Province 17–25 June 1944. Ignoring inhibiting weather conditions and heavy ground fire, the 23d Fighter Group provided air support for Chinese land forces and repeatedly struck at enemy troops and transportation. Its efforts in this instance earned it the Distinguished Unit Citation for "outstanding performance of duty in action against the enemy." In 1945 it help turn the Japanese spring offensive and harassed the retreating Japanese by strafing and bombing their columns.
Before the 23d Fighter Group returned to the United States in December 1945, it was credited with destroying 621 enemy planes in air combat, plus 320 more on the ground; with sinking more than 131,000 tons of enemy shipping and damaging another 250,000 tons; and with causing an estimated enemy troop loss of more than 20,000. These statistics were compiled through a total of more than 24,000 combat sorties, requiring more than 53,000 flying hours, and at a cost of 110 aircraft lost in aerial combat, 90 shot down by surface defenses, and 28 bombed while on the ground. Thirty-two pilots of the group achieved ace status by shooting down five or more enemy aircraft.
The 23d Fighter Group was inactivated 5 January 1946, at Fort Lewis, Washington.
The 23d Fighter Group was reactivated 10 October 1946, in Guam and assigned to the Twentieth Air Force, equipped with the long-range Republic P-47N Thunderbolt, replacing the 21st Fighter Group and assuming its equipment, personnel, and mission. While stationed in Guam, the 23 FG became a part of the United States Air Force (USAF) when it became a separate military service on 18 September 1947. In 1948 it was assigned to the 23rd Fighter Wing as part of the USAF Wing/Base Reorganization (Hobson Plan), which was intended to unify command and control on air bases by assigning operational and support groups to a single base. In April 1949, the group moved with the wing to Howard AB in the Panama Canal Zone, where it assumed the air defense mission of the Panama Canal. It was inactivated along with the wing a few months later.
Air Defense Command
The group was redesignated as the 23d Fighter-Interceptor Group (FIG) and activated once again and assigned to the 23d Fighter-Interceptor Wing (FIW) at Presque Isle AFB, Maine as part of the Air Defense Command (ADC), with the 74th and 75th Fighter-Interceptor Squadrons (FIS) assigned, flying F-86E Sabre aircraft. Before the year was over, both squadrons had converted to F-86As. In February 1952, the 23d FIW and 23d FIG were inactivated, in a major reorganization of Air Defense Command (ADC) responding to ADC's difficulty under the existing wing base organizational structure in deploying fighter squadrons to best advantage.
In August 1955, ADC implemented Project Arrow, which was designed to bring back on the active list the fighter units which had compiled memorable records in the two world wars. As a result of this project, the group, now designated the 23d Fighter Group (Air Defense), replaced the 528th Air Defense Group at Presque Isle and once again assumed command of the 75th FIS and 76 FIS, which also returned to Presque Isle to replace the 82d FIS and 318th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, because Project Arrow was also designed to reunite wartime squadrons with their traditional headquarters. However, the two squadrons were now operating F-89 Scorpions In addition, the group assumed USAF host responsibility for Presque Isle AFB and was assigned the 23rd USAF Infirmary (later USAF Dispensary), 23rd Air Base Squadron, 23rd Materiel Squadron, and in 1957, the 23rd Consolidated Aircraft Maintenance Squadron to carry out these duties. In 1957, the group converted from the F-89D to the nuclear capable F-89H armed with AIR-2 Genie rockets. In 1958, the 76th FIS moved to McCoy AFB, Florida and was assigned away from the group. The 75th FIS was in the process of converting to F-101 VooDoos, when the group was inactivated in 1959 as Presque Isle was being transferred to Strategic Air Command as host base for the SM-62 Snark Missile and the 702d Strategic Missile Wing.
Tactical Air Command
McConnell Air Force Base
Following its longest period of inactivation, the group was organized as the 23d Tactical Fighter Wing on 8 February 1964, at McConnell Air Force Base, Kansas, under Tactical Air Command and Twelfth Air Force. The 23 TFW was activated to replace the 388th Tactical Fighter Wing at McConnell after its deployment to Korat RTAFB, Thailand. Squadrons of the 23 TFW were:
- 561st Tactical Fighter Squadron
- 562d Tactical Fighter Squadron
- 563d Tactical Fighter Squadron
- 560th Tactical Fighter Squadron (28 January 1964 – 25 September 1968)
- 4519th Combat Crew/Tactical Fighter Training Squadron (1 August 1967 – 16 October 1969)
- 419th Tactical Fighter Training Squadron (15 October 1969 – 8 May 1971)
Squadron markings on the natural metal / silver lacquered aircraft included the following: 561 TFS - black/yellow checkerboarding on rudder; 562 TFS - a red, white and black "sharkmouth" on the nose of the aircraft; 563 TFS red and white stripes on the rudder, wingtips and stabilizers with a white band on the top of the vertical fin.
When Southeast Asian camouflaged, the squadrons carried the following tail codes: 561 TFS "MD"; 562 TFS "ME"; 563 TFS "MF", and later the 4519th and 419th TFTS "MG".
Flying the Republic Aviation F-105D/G "Thunderchief" aircraft, the mission of the 23 TFW at McConnell was to provide training for Thud pilots prior to their deployment to Southeast Asia. The 560th acted as a combat training squadron, while the other three squadrons began rotational TDY deployments to Southeast Asia beginning in November 1964.
In February 1965, when the 23 TFW deployed three squadrons (the 561st, 562d and 563d) to Southeast Asia for combat, these units were initially under the control of the 2d Air Division. Later, the 6441 TFW (P) was activated at Takhli RTAFB in July 1965, taking control of the 23d's squadrons deployed there. It was during this five-month tour that the 563d TFS lost 10 of its 18 F-105's deployed and was awarded two Air Force Outstanding Unit Awards with Combat "V" for Valor. In addition to the deployments to Thailand, detachments of the 561 TFS also deployed to Da Nang Air Base RVN for operations within the borders of the Republic of Vietnam.
On 1 August 1967, the 4519th Combat Crew Training squadron was added to the 23 TFW, and the 560 TFS was inactivated on 25 September 1968.
The wing maintained proficiency in tactical fighter operations, and later also functioned as an F-105 replacement training unit and assisted Air National Guard units in their conversion to the F-105 when the Thunderchief left first-line service. For the dual role it played from June 1970 to June 1971 as both an operational and a training unit, the wing received the Air Force Outstanding Unit Award in March 1971. Two of its squadrons, the 562d and 563d, also received the same award for their duty in Vietnam during 1965, but with the combat "V" added, the 563rd receiving two such awards in a five-month period. For its participation in Linebacker I and Linebacker II during 1972 the 561st (Wild Weasels) received the Air Force Outstanding Unit Award with Combat "V".
During combat operations in Southeast Asia, the 562 TFS lost three aircraft, while the 563 TFS lost eleven aircraft.
England Air Force Base
The 23d Tactical Fighter Wing moved "on paper" without people or equipment to England Air Force Base, Louisiana, 1 July 1972 and took over the assets and personnel of the 4403d Tactical Fighter Wing. Assigned to the Ninth Air Force, the wing activated all three of its original World War II fighter units — the 74th, 75th and 76th Tactical Fighter Squadrons for the first time since 1949, and began operations with the Ling-Temco-Vought A-7D Corsair II aircraft.
Squadron markings were a blue tail stripe, later adding white stars and a "74" in 1979 for the 74 TFS; s white outlined black tail stripe, later changed to black and white checkered for the 75 TFS, and a red tail stripe with white stars and a "76" for the 76 TFS. All 23 TFW aircraft carried the "EL" tail code at England AFB.
On 5 July 1973, the 74 TFS deployed to Korat Royal Thai Air Force Base, Thailand, on temporary duty with the 354 TFW (Deployed) from Myrtle Beach AFB, South Carolina. The 74th replaced the 354 TFS from Davis-Monthan AFB, Arizona that had completed its temporary duty. For just over a month, until the cessation of all U.S. bombing on 15 August 1973, the 74 TFS supported the air war activities in Cambodia, accounting for the destruction of 311 enemy structures, 25 ground artillery and missile sites, three bridges and 9,500 cubic meters of supplies. The 74 TFS returned to England AFB on 28 December 1973.
The 23 TFW took part in a variety of operational exercises both in the United States and overseas, including tactical bombing competitions against the Royal Air Force at RAF Lossiemouth, Scotland, during October 1977 and July 1978. In both events, A-7D teams captured the Sir John Mogg Team Trophy.
On 23 September 1980, the 74 TFS received the 23 TFW's first operational Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II aircraft. The 75 and 76 TFS received A-10s within the next few months, and the 23 TFW took top honors in Ninth Air Force’s tactical bombing competition (Gunpowder 1981) in July, and advanced to TAC’s worldwide Gunsmoke 1981 competition at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada, in September. The Flying Tigers won six of nine events, including top maintenance and munitions awards, and was the top A-10 unit in the competition. The wing’s maintenance complex was also awarded the 1981 Daedalian runner-up trophy, and earned the 1984 Daedalian Aircraft Maintenance Trophy.
Eight of the 23d's A-7Ds were transferred to the 4450th Tactical Group, based at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada in June 1981, during the transition to the A-10. The 4451st Tactical Squadron at Tonopah Test Range Airport used these aircraft to train F-117 pilots and to provide a cover story for F-117A development.
The wing set Air Force records for "mission capable" and "fully mission capable" (meaning an aircraft can meet any mission tasking) rates during fiscal year 1985. The marks, 93.1 percent in MC and 92.8 percent in FMC, topped records set by the wing in 1981, 1982, 1983 and 1984.
The wing earned its fourth Air Force Outstanding Unit Award for the period 1 April 1989, to 31 March 1991.
Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm
In response to the buildup of forces following the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in August 1990, the 74th and 76th Tactical Fighter Squadrons deployed with numerous support personnel to King Fahd International Airport, Saudi Arabia, attached to the 354th Tactical Fighter Wing (Provisional) as part of Operation Desert Shield. The A-10 deployment was the largest ever fielded and consisted of:
|Tail Code||Squadron||Wing||Home AFB|
|AR||511 TFS||10 TFW||RAF Alconbury, UK|
|EL||74 TFS||23 TFW||England AFB, LA|
|EL||76 TFS||23 TFW||England AFB, LA|
|MB||353 TFS||354 TFW||Myrtle Beach AFB, SC|
|MB||355 TFS||354 TFW||Myrtle Beach AFB, SC|
|NO||706 TFS||926 TFG||NAS New Orleans, LA|
|NF||23 TASS||602 TACW||Davis-Monthan AFB, AZ|
A total of 144 A/OA-10 aircraft were deployed.
Using forward operating locations near the Kuwaiti border as well as King Fahd AB, A-10s made their combat debut in Operation Desert Storm on 17 January 1991. The 23 TFW flew more than 2,700 combat sorties over Iraq and Kuwait while maintaining a mission-capable rate of 95 percent. In addition to providing close air support for ground units, the A-10s performed Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR) and SCUD-hunting missions. The combined efforts of the A-10 units resulted in the confirmed destruction of 987 tanks, 926 artillery pieces, 500 armored personnel carriers, 1,106 trucks, 112 military structures, 96 radars, 72 bunkers, 57 SCUD missile launchers, 50 anti-aircraft artillery batteries, 28 command posts, 11 FROG missiles, nine surface-to-air missile sites, eight fuel tanks and 12 aircraft.
Both squadrons returned to England Air Force Base at the end of March 1991. Support personnel continued to arrive for months after the aircraft redeployment. In October 1990, the Base Realignment and Closure Commission decided that England Air Force Base would be closed by September 1992. A draw down of equipment and personnel began almost immediately.
On 1 October 1991, as part of an Air Force-wide reorganization, the wing designation became 23d Fighter Wing, and on 1 November 1991, the squadrons also dropped "tactical" from their designations.
On 2 December 1991, the 75th Fighter Squadron was inactivated. The 74 FS was inactivated on 13 February 1992, and the 76 FS on 29 May. The 23d Fighter Wing's A-10 aircraft were sent to Air National Guard units, and the wing was inactivated on 1 June 1992. England AFB was closed the same day.
23d Operations Group
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (November 2012)|
On 1 June 1992, the 23d Tactical Fighter Group was redesignated the 23d Operations Group and activated at Pope AFB, North Carolina under the redesignated 23d Wing under the USAF Objective Wing plan. It was given the mission of controlling the flying components of the parent 23d Wing.
In December 1992, C-130s from the group's 2d Airlift Squadron deployed to Mombasa, Kenya, to participate in Operation Provide Relief. The aircraft and crews delivered tons of food and other relief supplies to small airstrips throughout Somalia. 23d Wing C-130s were also tasked to assist in other humanitarian relief efforts, to include Hurricane Andrew in Florida. They also airdropped relief supplies into Bosnia and Herzegovina and flew relief missions into Sarajevo for more than 28 months.
In September 1994, its C-130s participated in what was to be the largest combat personnel drop since World War II, Operation Uphold Democracy. They were to assist in dropping more than 3,000 paratroopers from the 82d Airborne Division onto Port au Prince Airport, Haiti. The invasion force was recalled at the last minute after word that the Haitian president had resigned upon hearing that the aircraft were on their way. The 75th Fighter Squadron's A-10s were deployed their aircraft to Shaw AFB, South Carolina, where they were scheduled to launch close air support operations for the invasion force before recovering in Puerto Rico.
The first operational deployment of a composite wing happened in October 1994, when Iraqi troops began massing near the Kuwaiti Border. Within 72 hours, 56 aircraft and 1,500 personnel deployed to the Persian Gulf region for Operation Vigilant Warrior. Eventually, the 75th Fighter Squadron redeployed to Al Jaber AB, Kuwait, becoming the first U.S. fixed-wing aircraft to be stationed in that country since the end of the Gulf War.
On 1 July 1996, the 74th Fighter Squadron's F-16C/D Fighting Falcons were transferred to the 27th Fighter Wing's 524th Fighter Squadron at Cannon AFB, New Mexico, and the squadron transitioned to A/OA-10 Thunderbolt IIs received from the 20th Fighter Wing's 55th Fighter Squadron at Shaw AFB, South Carolina. This gave the 23d Group a 2d A-10 squadron.
23d Fighter Group
On 1 April 1997, the 23d Operations Group was inactivated and replaced by the downsized 23rd Wing, which was redesignated as the 23d Fighter Group. The 23d Fighter Group was assigned to the 347th Wing of Air Combat Command at Moody AFB, Georgia but physically remained at Pope as a Geographically Separated Unit (GSU). Its C-130s and Pope Air Force Base were realigned to Air Mobility Command and assigned to the 43d Airlift Wing.
Moody Air Force Base
On 1 October 2006, the 347th Rescue Wing at Moody AFB redesignated as the 347th Rescue Group, while the 23 FG was expanded and redesignated the 23d Wing. Along with the 347th Rescue Group, the original 23d Fighter Group was reactivated, this time at Moody Air Force Base, for only the second time in over fifty years. The 23d Fighter Group was then assigned as one of the 23d Wing's operations groups, although retaining the designation of "Fighter Group".
Both the 23 WG and 23 FG are charged with carrying on the historic Flying Tiger's heritage.
- Constituted as 23d Pursuit Group (Interceptor) on 17 December 1941
- Redesignated 23d Fighter Group on 15 May 1942
- Activated on 4 July 1942
- Inactivated on 5 January 1946
- Redesignated 23d Fighter Group, Single Engine in 1946
- Activated on 10 October 1946
- Redesignated 23d Fighter Group, Jet on 3 May 1949
- Inactivated on 24 September 1949
- Redesignated 23d Fighter-Interceptor Group on 19 December 1950
- Activated on 12 January 1951
- Inactivated on 6 February 1952
- Redesignated 23d Fighter Group (Air Defense) on 20 June 1955
- Activated on 18 August 1955
- Inactivated on 1 July 1959
- Redesignated 23d Tactical Fighter Group on 31 July 1985 (remained inactive)
- Redesignated 23d Operations Group, and activated, on 1 June 1992
- Inactivated on 1 April 1997
- Redesignated: 23d Fighter Group on 26 September 2006
- Activated on 1 October 2006
- China Air Task Force (Tenth Air Force), 4 July 1942
- Fourteenth Air Force, 10 March 1943 – 5 January 1946
- 20th Fighter Wing (later 46th Fighter Wing), 10 October 1946
- 23d Fighter Wing, 16 August 1948 – 24 September 1949
- 23d Fighter-Interceptor Wing, 12 January 1951 – 6 February 1952
- 4711th Air Defense Wing, 18 August 1955
- 32d Air Division (Defense), 1 March 1956
- Bangor Air Defense Sector, 1 August 1958 – 1 July 1959
- 23d Wing, 1 June 1992 – 1 April 1997
- 23d Wing, 1 October 2006 – present
- 2d Airlift Squadron: 1 June 1992 – 1 April 1997
- 16th Fighter Squadron: attached, 4 July 1942 – 19 October 1943
- 41st Airlift Squadron: 16 July 1993 – 1 April 1997
- 74th Fighter Squadron: 4 July 1942 – 5 January 1946; 10 October 1946 – 24 September 1949; 12 January 1951 – 6 February 1952; 15 June 1993 – 1 April 1997; 1 October 2006 – present
- 75th Fighter Squadron (later 75th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, 75th Fighter Squadron): 4 July 1942 – 5 January 1946; 10 October 1946 – 24 September 1949; 12 January 1951 – 6 February 1952; 18 August 1955 – 1 July 1959; 1 June 1992 – 1 April 1997; 1 October 2006 – present
- 76th Fighter Squadron (later, 76th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron): 4 July 1942 – 5 January 1946; 10 October 1946 – 24 September 1949; 18 August 1955 – 9 November 1957
- 118th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron: attached, May 1945 – Aug 1945
- 132d Fighter-Interceptor Squadron: attached, 21 July 1951 – 2 August 1951
- 134th Fighter Interception Squadron: attached, Jan 1951 -2 August 1951
- 449th Fighter Squadron: attached, Jul 1943–19 October 1943
- Kunming Airport, China, 4 July 1942
- Kweilin Airfield, China, c. Sept 1943
- Liuchow Airfield, China, 8 September 1944
- Luliang Airfield, China, 14 September 1944
- Liuchow Airfield, China, Aug 1945
- Hanchow Airfield, China, c. 10 October – 12 December 1945
- Fort Lewis, Washington, 3–5 January 1946
- Northwest Field (later, Northwest Guam AFB), Guam, 10 October 1946 – 3 April 1949
- Howard AFB, Canal Zone, 25 April – 24 September 1949
- Presque Isle AFB, Maine, 12 January 1951 – 6 February 1952; 18 August 1955 – 1 July 1959
- Pope AFB, North Carolina, 1 June 1992 – 30 July 2007
- Moody AFB, Georgia, 30 July 2007 – present
- China Defensive
- Western Pacific
- China offensive
Notes and citations
- The 103rd Aero Squadron had been formed in France in 1918 from members of the Lafayette Escadrille and Lafayette Flying Corps, making it the first U.S. air unit ever formed on a foreign battlefield. All of the Air Service groups that fought in World War I, including the 1st Pursuit Group, were formed in France as well. The activation of the 23rd FG in China preceded that of the 4th Fighter Group in England (from the former RAF Eagle Squadrons) by almost three months.
- Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1983) . Air Force Combat Units of World War II (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. p. 72. ISBN 0-912799-02-1.
- Molesworth, Carl (2009). 23rd Fighter Group: Chenault's Sharks. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7858-1401-6. (Extracts online at Google Books. Retrieved 2 November 2012
- CBI Roundup, Vol. II, No. 32, 20 April 1944
- Maurer Combat Units, p. 72
- AFHRA Factsheet, 23d Wing. Retrieved 28 July 2012
- Ravenstein, Charles A. (1984). Air Force Combat Wings, Lineage & Honors Histories 1947–1977. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. pp. 43–45. ISBN 0-912799-12-9.
- AFHRA Factsheet, 23d Fighter Group. Retrieved 5 April 2012
- Goss, William A (1955). "The Organization and its Responsibilities, Chapter 2 The AAF". In Craven, Wesley F & Cate, James L. The Army Air Forces in World War II. Vol. VI, Men & Planes. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. p. 59. LCCN 48-3657.
- Cornett, Lloyd H; Johnson, Mildred W (1980). A Handbook of Aerospace Defense Organization, 1946–1980. Peterson AFB, CO: Office of History, Aerospace Defense Center. p. 118.
- Grant, C.L., The Development of Continental Air Defense to 1 September 1954, (1961), USAF Historical Study No. 126
- Buss, Lydus H.(ed), Sturm, Thomas A., Volan, Denys, and McMullen, Richard F., History of Continental Air Defense Command and Air Defense Command July to December 1955, Directorate of Historical Services, Air Defense Command, Ent AFB, CO, (1956), p.6
- Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1982) . Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. pp. 274–275. ISBN 0-405-12194-6.
- Maurer, Combat Squadrons, p. 287
- Maurer, Combat Squadrons, p. 389
- See Abstract, History of 23d USAF Infirmary Aug-Dec 1955. Retrieved 7 April 2012
- Abstract, History of 23d Air Base Squadron Jan 1958-Jun 1959. Retrieved 7 April 2012
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 145
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 136
- Cornett & Johnson, p. 70
- USAF Release ref 23d Wing.
- Lineage, Assignment, Components, and Stations are in AFHRA Factsheet, 23d Fighter Group
- Air Force Personnel Services Unit Awards. Retrieved 2 November 2012
References & Bibliography
- Donald, David (2004) Century Jets: USAF Frontline Fighters of the Cold War. AIRtime ISBN 1-880588-68-4
- Endicott, Judy G. (1999) Active Air Force wings as of 1 October 1995; USAF active flying, space, and missile squadrons as of 1 October 1995. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. CD-ROM.
- Lopez, Donald S. (1986). Into the Teeth of the Tiger. New York, NY: Random House. ISBN 978-0-553-27441-7.
- Menard, David W. (1993). USAF Plus Fifteen: A Photo History, 1947–1962. Lancaster, PA: Shiffer Publishing, Ltd. ISBN 0-88740-483-9.
- Molesworth, Carl (1994). Sharks Over China: The 23rd Fighter Group in World War II. Washington, DC: Brassey's (US). ISBN 978-0-7858-1401-6.
- Rogers, Brian. (2005). United States Air Force Unit Designations Since 1978. Hinkley, UK: Midland Publications. ISBN 1-85780-197-0.
- Global Security site about the 23d Fighter Group
- Annals of the Flying Tigers (American Volunteer Group)
- Flying Tiger Association Website