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On July 15, 1976, kidnappers abducted 26 children, ages 5 to 14, and their school bus driver in Chowchilla, Madera County, California. The kidnappers eventually transported their victims from Chowchilla to a quarry in Livermore, and loaded them into a buried moving box truck. After about 16 hours, the driver and children were able to dig themselves out and escape unharmed. Police soon arrested the quarry owner's son and his accomplices.

Kidnapping and escape[edit]

On July 15, 1976, twenty-six children and their bus driver were kidnapped in Chowchilla, California, by armed men who blocked the highway around 4:00 PM. The students, who were attending Dairyland Elementary School for summer school, were being dropped off on their way back from a field trip at the Chowchilla fairgrounds' swimming pool. The kidnappers hid the bus in a drainage slough and drove the children and bus driver around in two vans for 11 hours, eventually taking them to a quarry in Livermore, California. There, the kidnappers imprisoned the victims inside a buried moving van with a small amount of food and water, and a number of mattresses.

After many hours, bus driver Frank Edward "Ed" Ray and the children stacked the mattresses, enabling some of them to reach the opening at the top of the truck, which had been covered with a metal plate and weighed down with two 100–pound industrial batteries. They wedged the lid open with a stick, Ray moved the batteries, and they removed the remainder of the debris that blocked the entrance. After 16 hours underground, they emerged and walked to the quarry's guard shack. All were in good condition.

Investigation and arrests[edit]

The truck was registered to the quarry owner's son, Frederick Newhall Woods IV. Under hypnosis the bus driver remembered the license number of one of the vans. Woods was arrested after fleeing to Vancouver, Canada. His accomplices, Richard and James Schoenfeld, surrendered to authorities in California. (James was caught shortly before he was able to do so.)[1]

The kidnappers had been unable to phone in their ransom demand because telephone lines to the Chowchilla Police Department were tied up by media calls and families searching for their children. A draft ransom note was also found. Some details of the crime corresponded to details in "The Day the Children Vanished", a story by Hugh Pentecost that was published in Alfred Hitchcock's Daring Detectives (1969).[2] A copy of this book was in the Chowchilla public library, and police theorized that it had inspired the kidnappers.[3]

All three were sentenced to life in prison.[4] Richard Schoenfeld was released in 2012.[5] James Schoenfeld was paroled August 7, 2015.[6][7][8] Frederick Woods was denied parole on November 19, 2015, and will not be eligible for another parole hearing for three years.[9][10]


Frank Edward "Ed" Ray (February 26, 1921 – May 17, 2012) received a California School Employees Association citation for outstanding community service.[11] Before he died in 2012,[12] he was visited by many of the schoolchildren he had helped save.[13]

A study found that the kidnapped children suffered from panic attacks, nightmares involving kidnappings and death, and personality changes. Many developed fears of such things as "cars, the dark, the wind, the kitchen, mice, dogs and hippies,"[14] and one shot a Japanese tourist with a BB gun when the tourist's car broke down in front of his home.[15] Many of the children continued to report symptoms of trauma at least 25 years after the kidnapping, including substance abuse and depression, and a number have been imprisoned for "doing something controlling to somebody else."[16]

In popular culture[edit]

The Chowchilla kidnappings were featured on episode 7 of season 2 of the program House of Horrors: Kidnapped, which airs on the American cable network Investigation Discovery.[17] The episode, Buried Alive, first aired on April 21, 2015, and was told from the point of view of Michael Marshall, who at age 14 was the oldest of the children on the bus.

A two-hour made-for-TV movie about the event aired on the ABC Network on March 1, 1993 titled: They've Taken Our Children: The Chowchilla Kidnapping. It starred Karl Malden as bus driver Ed Ray, and Julie Harris as his wife. It was Malden's final on-screen role before retirement.[18]

A second season episode of Millennium, 19:19, involves the kidnapping of a busload of schoolchildren, as well as their bus driver, who are then taken to an aluminium quarry and hidden in an underground bunker.[19]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The Encyclopedia of Kidnappings by Michael Newton p.60 C.2002
  2. ^ Alfred Hitchcock; Arthur Shilstone (1969) ''Alfred Hitchcock's Daring Detectives, Random House, New York ISBN 978-0-39481-490-2
  3. ^ "CRIME: Escape from an Earthen Cell". Time. July 26, 1976. Retrieved April 28, 2010. 
  4. ^ MacGowan, Douglas. "The Chowchilla Kidnapping". crimelibrary. Retrieved March 16, 2014. 
  5. ^ Hurd, Rick; Green, Jason (22 June 2012). "Paroled Chowchilla school bus kidnapper living in Mountain View". San Jose Mercury News (MediaNews Group). Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  6. ^ [1] (August 7, 2015)
  7. ^ "Chowchilla kidnapper granted parole at 20th hearing" (April 1, 2015) The Fresno Bee
  8. ^ "CALIFORNIA BRIEFING; SAN LUIS OBISPO; Parole granted in 1976 kidnapping" (April 2, 2015) Los Angeles Times, p. B4
  9. ^ "California: Parole Denied for Man Who Helped Hijack School Bus in 1976". New York Times. November 19, 2015. Retrieved November 19, 2015. 
  10. ^ "Parole Denied Again for Frederick Woods, Last of 3 Men Convicted in 1976 Chowchilla Kidnapping to Remain in Prison" (November 19, 2015) NBC Bay Area
  11. ^ Hevesi, Dennis (May 18, 2012). Ray, Bus Driver During Kidnapping, Dies at 91. New York Times
  12. ^ Associated Press (May 18, 2012). Chowchilla kidnapping bus driver Frank Ray dies. San Francisco Chronicle
  13. ^ Smith, Joshua Emerson (May 17, 2012). Ed Ray, Chowchilla bus driver in 1976 kidnapping, dies. Merced Sun-Star
  14. ^ "Study Finds Trauma In Kidnap Victims". Merced Sun-Star (The Associated Press). January 20, 1981. 
  15. ^ Linda Witt (July 20, 1986). "A DECADE-OLD CRIME HOLDS A SMALL TOWN HOSTAGE". Chicago Tribune (TEMPO; Pg. 1; ZONE: C). 
  16. ^ Charles Osgood, anchor; John Blackstone, reporter (July 29, 2001). "Innocence lost; the Chowchilla kidnap victims 25 years later, and what they taught us about childhood trauma". CBS News Transcripts (CBS Sunday Morning). 
  17. ^ "House of Horrors: Kidnapped: "Buried Alive" (TV Episode)". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2015-04-22. 
  18. ^ http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0105576/
  19. ^ http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0648214/?ref_=ttep_ep7

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1976_Chowchilla_kidnapping — Please support Wikipedia.
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16 news items

NBC Bay Area

NBC Bay Area
Thu, 19 Nov 2015 16:35:35 -0800

The 26 children and their school bus driver were taken from Chowchilla to a quarry near Livermore. The last of three men convicted of hijacking a school bus full of California children nearly four decades ago was denied parole for the 16th time on ...


Sun, 02 Aug 2015 12:08:21 -0700

Gun violence survivors band together. Source: KGO. Added on 1:51 PM ET, Sun August 2, 2015. Nearly 40 years after being taken, the survivors of the 1976 Chowchilla kidnapping gathered to memorialize the man who saved them. CNN affiliate KGO reports.

Huffington Post

Huffington Post
Fri, 18 May 2012 09:36:44 -0700

FRESNO, Calif. -- The nation called Ed Ray a hero when he led a terrified group of children to safety after they were kidnapped aboard their school bus and held underground for ransom in the summer of 1976. But the unassuming bus driver from a dusty ...

The San Luis Obispo Tribune

The San Luis Obispo Tribune
Fri, 07 Aug 2015 11:56:15 -0700

Schoenfeld was one of three men convicted in the 1976 Chowchilla kidnapping of 26 children and their school bus driver who were held captive in a buried trailer. The men planned to ask for a $5 million ransom for the children, but ​all the victims ...

Fox News

Fox News
Fri, 03 Aug 2012 11:56:15 -0700

It seemed like a normal school day as 26 children and the bus driver made their way made their way back from school in Chowchilla, California. However for the bus driver and children, July 15, 1976 turned into a nightmare very quickly. The small ...

Los Angeles Times

Los Angeles Times
Tue, 05 Apr 2011 17:12:48 -0700

California's parole board Tuesday upheld an earlier decision that deemed one of three men responsible for kidnapping 26 Chowchilla schoolchildren and their school bus driver in 1976 suitable for parole. But Richard Schoenfeld, now 56, would not be ...

Daily Mail

Daily Mail
Sat, 16 Jun 2012 12:07:04 -0700

The California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation announced Friday that it would release Richard Schoenfeld, one of the masterminds behind the thwarted 1976 Chowchilla kidnapping, later this month at an undetermined location.

OCRegister (subscription)

OCRegister (subscription)
Tue, 03 Dec 2013 15:08:32 -0800

He wrote about Patty Hearst, César Chávez and, in a story he discussed extensively with New U staffers, the 1976 Chowchilla kidnapping of 26 children and their adult driver from a school bus. It feels weird to be writing about Bell. I'm a reporter for ...

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