digplanet beta 1: Athena
Share digplanet:


Applied sciences






















The 1976 Chowchilla kidnapping occurred in Chowchilla, California, on July 15, 1976, when kidnappers abducted 26 children and their adult driver. They buried the school bus in a rock quarry in Livermore, CA with all the students and the driver inside it. The driver, Frank Edward "Ed" Ray, was able to dig his way out and freed the children, and the kidnappers were caught and convicted.


Kidnapping and escape[edit]

Chowchilla was launched into national headlines on July 15, 1976, when 26 children and an adult bus driver were kidnapped from their bus. The kidnappers hid the bus in a drainage slough, and drove the children and bus driver around in two vans for 11 hours before forcing them to climb into a hole in the ground. After passing through the hole, the children and their driver found themselves trapped in the interior of a buried moving van. Although they did not know it, their place of confinement was in a quarry located in Livermore, California.

Local farmer and part-time bus driver Ed Ray, with help from some of the boys, stacked the 14 mattresses that were in the van. This enabled some of the older children to reach the opening at the top of the truck, which had been covered with a metal lid and weighed down with two 100-pound industrial batteries. They wedged the lid open with a stick, Ray moved the batteries, and then they removed the remainder of the debris blocking the entrance. After 16 hours underground, they emerged and walked to the guard shack at the entrance to the quarry. The guard alerted the authorities, all the victims were pronounced in good condition, and they returned home to find that the mass media had descended on the town.

Investigation and arrests[edit]

Ray was able to remember the license plate number of one vehicle under hypnosis, which led to the capture of the kidnappers as they attempted to flee to Canada. A rough draft of a ransom note was found at the house of the owner of the quarry. The owner's son, Frederick Newhall Woods, IV, and two friends, Richard and James Schoenfeld, were found guilty and sentenced to life in prison.[1]

After the children were recovered, it was observed that some circumstances of the abduction corresponded to details in "The Day the Children Vanished", a story written by Hugh Pentecost that had been published in the 1969 fiction anthology Alfred Hitchcock's Daring Detectives. A copy of this book was in the Chowchilla public library; police theorized that this was the real-life kidnappers' inspiration.[2]



After being denied parole 20 times, one of the three kidnappers, Richard Schoenfeld, was deemed suitable for parole by the California Board on Parole Hearings on October 30, 2008. Richard Schoenfeld was released on June 20, 2012 and is living with his mother in a condominium complex in Mountain View, California.[3]

James Schoenfeld was denied parole for the 17th time on March 13, 2013. He will be eligible for parole again in 3 years. Frederick Woods was denied parole for the 13th time on November 28, 2012 and will not be eligible again until 2015.[4]

Bus driver[edit]

Frank Edward "Ed" Ray (February 26, 1921 – May 17, 2012) graduated from Chowchilla High School in 1940. After working on a small farm, Ray began driving a bus in the early 1950s. After the kidnapping, the town celebrated Ed Ray and Children’s Day with a parade, and Governor Jerry Brown awarded Ray a 1976 California School Employees Association citation for outstanding community service.[5] Ray died at a Chowchilla nursing home of cirrhosis of the liver, at the age of 91.[6] In the days before he died, he was visited by many of the schoolchildren whom he helped save.[7]


Three years after the kidnapping, a study of 23 of the children by Dr. Lenore C. Terr of UC San Francisco concluded that they had been traumatized by the ordeal, resulting in panic attacks, nightmares of kidnappings leading to their deaths, and personality changes. Twenty of the children were afraid of being kidnapped again, and 21 were afraid of such things as "cars, the dark, the wind, the kitchen, mice, dogs and hippies."[8] Eighteen months after the kidnapping, one of the older male victims shot a Japanese tourist with a BB gun when the tourist's car broke down in front of his home in what Dr. Terr described as "a dangerously inappropriate episode of (his need for) heroism."[9] Many of the children continued to report symptoms of trauma at least 25 years after the kidnapping, including substance abuse and depression. According to Dr. Terr, a number have spent time in prison for "doing something controlling to somebody else."[10]

Media adaptations[edit]

The ordeal was dramatized in the 1993 ABC-TV movie They've Taken Our Children: The Chowchilla Kidnapping (shown in the UK as Vanished Without a Trace) starring Karl Malden as Ray. Frederick Woods subsequently sued the network, alleging their portrayal of him was false and misleading, but the case was dismissed.[11]

Interviews with many of the children, now adults, as well as the bus driver, have been broadcast on MSNBC.

The TV series Without a Trace ran an episode called "The Bus," in which a bus full of children is hijacked for ransom in a manner similar to the Chowchilla incident.

The TV series Criminal Minds ran an episode called "Wheels on the Bus" where a bus full of children was hijacked for different reasons but in the same way. One of the FBI Agents (Spencer Reid) referenced this kidnapping because of its similarities.

The TV series Millennium ran an episode called "19:19": In southeastern Oklahoma, Frank races against time to locate a busload of abducted children, whom a crazed visionary has entombed in an abandoned quarry.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ MacGowan, Douglas. "The Chowchilla Kidnapping". crimelibrary. Retrieved March 16, 2014. 
  2. ^ "CRIME: Escape from an Earthen Cell". Time. July 26, 1976. Retrieved April 28, 2010. 
  3. ^ Hurd, Rick; Green, Jason (22 June 2012). "Paroled Chowchilla school bus kidnapper living in Mountain View". San Jose Mercury News (MediaNews Group). Retrieved 22 June 2012. 
  4. ^ "Parole Denied To 1 Of 3 Chowchilla Bus Kidnappers". CBS San Francisco. November 28, 2012. Retrieved March 16, 2014. 
  5. ^ Hevesi, Dennis (May 18, 2012). Ray, Bus Driver During Kidnapping, Dies at 91. New York Times
  6. ^ Associated Press (May 18, 2012). Chowchilla kidnapping bus driver Frank Ray dies. San Francisco Chronicle.
  7. ^ Smith, Joshua Emerson (May 17, 2012). Ed Ray, Chowchilla bus driver in 1976 kidnapping, dies. Merced Sun-Star
  8. ^ "Study Finds Trauma In Kidnap Victims". The Associated Press (AM Cycle). January 20, 1981. 
  9. ^ Linda Witt (July 20, 1986). "A DECADE-OLD CRIME HOLDS A SMALL TOWN HOSTAGE". Chicago Tribune (TEMPO; Pg. 1; ZONE: C). 
  10. ^ Charles Osgood, anchor; John Blackstone, reporter (July 29, 2001). "Innocence lost; the Chowchilla kidnap victims 25 years later, and what they taught us about childhood trauma". CBS News Transcripts (CBS Sunday Morning). 
  11. ^ Staff report (April 16, 1994). Goals in the school of hard knocks, etc. Washington Times

External links[edit]

Original courtesy of Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1976_Chowchilla_kidnapping — Please support Wikipedia.
This page uses Creative Commons Licensed content from Wikipedia. A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia.
19 videos foundNext > 

Chowchilla Kidnapping news footage

Chowchilla kidnapping news film footage from 1976.

Chowchilla Kidnapper Mountain View Parole | Voices Around Town 6.29.12 | MV Voice

Are Mountain View area residents nervous about one of the Chowchilla kidnappers moving to Mountain View? Each week the Voice heads to downtown Mountain View ...

Scared Straight 1978

The original scared straight from 1978 with follow ups on the youths and "lifers" 20 years later.

Kid's Kidnap Babies! (Day 669)

In criminal law, kidnapping is the taking away or transportation of a person against that person's will, usually to hold the person in false imprisonment, a ...

Mike Hartman's farewell speech from KSEE24 NBC Fresno after

After 52 years in the TV news biz, Mike Hartman is retiring. Most recently he served as KSEE 24's managing editor. As a journalist, one of his most notable s...

Edward Ray Park in Chowchilla

The city of Chowchilla renamed a park on Feb. 26 for Edward Ray, a bus driver who in 1976 helped save 26 kidnapped children. The park was dedicated on what would have been his 94th birthday.


Elizabeth Smart was abducted from her bedroom in Salt Lake City, Utah on June 5, 2002. She was 14 at the time. She was found alive nine months later on March...

Chowchilla Bus Kidnapper Released From Prison

After more than 35 years in prison, one of three men who kidnapped a busload of schoolchildren in a ransom attempt in Chowchilla has been released on parole....

ABC News Day After 1976 Dem Convention

Let's skip a little bit through 1976 to July after the Dem Convention wrapped up in NYC. A school bus was kidnapped with kids inside, IDK what happened to th...

Chowchilla Project 2010.mov

Video from our 2010 spring break mission trip to Chowchilla, CA.

19 videos foundNext > 

6 news items

Huffington Post
Fri, 18 May 2012 09:36:44 -0700

FRESNO, Calif. -- The nation called Ed Ray a hero when he led a terrified group of children to safety after they were kidnapped aboard their school bus and held underground for ransom in the summer of 1976. But the unassuming bus driver from a dusty ...
Los Angeles Times
Tue, 05 Apr 2011 17:12:48 -0700

California's parole board Tuesday upheld an earlier decision that deemed one of three men responsible for kidnapping 26 Chowchilla schoolchildren and their school bus driver in 1976 suitable for parole. But Richard Schoenfeld, now 56, would not be ...
Fox News
Fri, 03 Aug 2012 11:56:15 -0700

It seemed like a normal school day as 26 children and the bus driver made their way made their way back from school in Chowchilla, California. However for the bus driver and children, July 15, 1976 turned into a nightmare very quickly. The small ...
The Almanac Online
Wed, 30 Apr 2014 16:17:02 -0700

Near the corner of Alpine and Portola roads in Portola Valley, there sits an unoccupied estate that dates from 1867. Upon its 79 acres are a rundown mansion, a rundown garage, a rundown cottage, a rundown barn, and estate grounds that, while not ...
Daily Mail
Sat, 16 Jun 2012 12:07:04 -0700

The California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation announced Friday that it would release Richard Schoenfeld, one of the masterminds behind the thwarted 1976 Chowchilla kidnapping, later this month at an undetermined location.
Tue, 22 May 2012 14:04:36 -0700

On Tuesday, family and loved ones in Chowchilla, Calif., remember a school bus driver who many consider an American hero. Thirty-six years ago, Ed Ray was driving his regular school bus route when it was hijacked. Everyone aboard was driven 100 miles, ...

Oops, we seem to be having trouble contacting Twitter

Support Wikipedia

A portion of the proceeds from advertising on Digplanet goes to supporting Wikipedia. Please add your support for Wikipedia!

Searchlight Group

Digplanet also receives support from Searchlight Group. Visit Searchlight