|Centuries:||19th century – 20th century – 21st century|
|Decades:||1880s 1890s 1900s – 1910s – 1920s 1930s 1940s|
|Years:||1910 1911 1912 – 1913 – 1914 1915 1916|
|Ab urbe condita||2666|
|British Regnal year||3 Geo. 5 – 4 Geo. 5|
|Chinese calendar||壬子年 (Water Rat)
4609 or 4549
— to —
癸丑年 (Water Ox)
4610 or 4550
|- Vikram Samvat||1969–1970|
|- Shaka Samvat||1835–1836|
|- Kali Yuga||5014–5015|
|Japanese calendar||Taishō 2
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 13 days|
|Minguo calendar||ROC 2
|Thai solar calendar||2455–2456|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1913.|
1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (dominical letter E) of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday (dominical letter F) of the Julian calendar, the 1913th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 913th year of the 2nd millennium, the 13th year of the 20th century, and the 4th year of the 1910s decade. Note that the Julian day for 1913 is 13 calendar days difference, which continued to be used from 1582 until the complete conversion of the Gregorian calendar was entirely done in 1929.
- 1 Events
- 2 Births
- 3 Deaths
- 4 Nobel Prizes
- 5 References
- 6 External links
- 7 Further reading
- January 1 – The British Board of Film Censors receives the authority to classify and censor films.
- January 13 – Edward Carson founds the (first) Ulster Volunteer Force by unifying several existing loyalist militias to resist home rule for Ireland.
- January 23 – General election in Tasmania.
- January 23 – In the 1913 Ottoman coup d'état, Ismail Enver comes to power.
- January 30 – The British House of Lords rejects an Irish Home Rule Bill
- The Centennial Year Industrial Exposition is announced for Canada
- February 1 – New York City's Grand Central Terminal, having been rebuilt, reopens as the world's largest railroad station.
- February 3 – The 16th Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, authorizing the Federal government to impose and collect income taxes.
- February 9 – Mexican Revolution: Beginning of "La Decena Trágica", the rebellion of some military chiefs against the President Francisco I. Madero.
- February 18 – Mexican Revolution: President Francisco I. Madero and Vice President José María Pino Suárez are forced to resign. Pedro Lascuráin serves as President for less than an hour before General Victoriano Huerta, leader of the coup, takes office
- February 22 – Mexican Revolution: Assassination of Francisco I. Madero and José María Pino Suárez.
- c. March 1 – British steamship Calvados disappears in the Sea of Marmara with 200 on board.
- March 3 – The Woman Suffrage Parade of 1913 takes place in Washington, D.C. led by Inez Milholland on horseback.
- March 4
- Woodrow Wilson succeeds William Howard Taft as President of the United States.
- The U.S. Department of Commerce and U.S. Department of Labor are established by splitting the duties of the 10-year-old Department of Commerce and Labor. The Census Bureau, U.S. Bureau of Fisheries and U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey form part of the Department of Commerce.
- March 4–6 – First Balkan War: Battle of Bizani: Forces of the Kingdom of Greece capture the forts of Bizani (covering the approaches to Ioannina) from the Ottoman Empire.
- March 7 – The British freighter Alum Chine, carrying 343 tons of dynamite, explodes in Baltimore harbour.
- March 12 – Australia begins building the new federal capital of Canberra.
- March 13 – Mexican Revolution: Pancho Villa returns to Mexico from his self-imposed exile in the United States.
- March 17 – The Military Aviation Academy (Escuela de Aviación Militar) is founded in Uruguay, to become the Military Air Force (Fuerza Aérea Militar) on 4 December 1952. The Uruguayan Air Force (FAU) would grow from this foundation.
- March 18 – George I of Greece is assassinated after 50 years on the throne. He is succeeded by his son Constantine.
- March 20 – Sung Chiao-jen, a founder of the Chinese nationalist party (Kuomintang), is wounded in an assassination attempt and dies two days later.
- March 23 – Supporters of Phan Xích Long begin an attempt to revolt against colonial rule in French Indochina.
- March 25 – Great Dayton Flood after four days of rain in the Miami Valley kills over 360 and destroys 20,000 homes, chiefly in Dayton.
- March 26
- Bernhard Kellermann's novel Der Tunnel is published.
- April 5 – The United States Soccer Federation is formed.
- April 8 – The Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is passed, dictating the direct election of senators.
- April 21 – Cunard ocean liner RMS Aquitania, built by John Brown & Company, is launched on the River Clyde.
- April 24 – The Woolworth Building opens in New York City. Designed by Cass Gilbert, it is the tallest building in the world at this date and for more than a decade after.
- May 3 – Raja Harishchandra, the first full-length Indian feature film is released, marking the beginning of the Indian film industry.
- May 9–July 11 – Major industrial strike in the Black Country of England involving 25,000 workers, threatening preparations for World War I in naval and steel industries. The workers demand 23 shillings minimum wage.
- May 14 – New York Governor William Sulzer approves the charter for the Rockefeller Foundation, which begins operations with a $100,000,000 donation from John D. Rockefeller.
- May 24 – Princess Victoria Louise of Prussia marries Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover in Berlin, ending the decades-long rift between the Houses of Hohenzollern and Hanover and becoming the last great gathering of European sovereigns.
- May 26 (May 13 O.S.) – Igor Sikorsky becomes the first person to pilot a 4-engine fixed-wing aircraft.
- May 29 – The ballet The Rite of Spring, with music by Igor Stravinsky conducted by Pierre Monteux, choreography by Vaslav Nijinsky and design by Nicholas Roerich, is premièred by Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées in Paris; its modernism provokes one of the most famous classical music riots in history.
- May 30 – First Balkan War: The Treaty of London is signed, ending the war. Greece is granted those parts of southern Epirus which it does not already control and the independence of Albania is recognised.
- South Africa's first flying school opens in Kimberley to train pilots for the South African Aviation Corps, to become the South African Air Force on 1 February 1920.
- June 1 – The Greek–Serbian Treaty of Alliance is signed, paving the way for the Second Balkan War.
- June 4 – Emily Davison, a British suffragette, runs out in front of the King's horse, Anmer, at the Epsom Derby. She is trampled and dies four days later in hospital, never having regained consciousness.
- June 8 – The Deutsches Stadion in Berlin is dedicated with the release of 10,000 pigeons in front of an audience of 60,000 people. It had been constructed in anticipation of the 1916 Summer Olympics, later to be cancelled the result of World War I.
- June 11
- Women's suffrage is enacted in Norway.
- Battle of Bud Bagsak: Armed with guns and heavy artillery, U.S. and Philippine troops under General John J. "Black Jack" Pershing fight a four-day battle against 500 Moro rebels who are armed mostly with kampilan swords. The rebels are killed in a final desperate charge on June 15.
- June 18 – The Arab Congress of 1913 opens, during which Arab nationalists meet to discuss desired reforms under the Ottoman Empire.
- June 19 – The Parliament of South Africa passes the Natives Land Act, limiting land ownership for blacks to black territories.
- June 24 – Joseph Cook becomes the 6th Prime Minister of Australia.
- June 29 – The Second Balkan War begins.
- Foundation of Iglesia ni Cristo, an independent sect of Christianity in the Philippines.
- July 10
- July 27 – Foundation of the town of San Javier, Uruguay, by Russian settlers.
- August 4 – Republic of China: the province of Chungking (Chongqing) declares independence; Republican forces crush the rebellion in a couple of weeks.
- August 10 – Second Balkan War: The Treaty of Bucharest is signed, ending the war. Macedonia is divided and Northern Epirus is assigned to Albania.
- August 13 – Harry Brearley invents stainless steel in Sheffield.
- August 20 – After his airplane fails at an altitude of 900 feet (270 m), aviator Adolphe Pégoud becomes the first person to bail out to safety from an airplane and land safely.
- August 23 – The statue The Little Mermaid in Copenhagen, Denmark, is finished.
- August 26 – Dublin Lock-out in Ireland: Members of James Larkin's Irish Transport and General Workers' Union employed by the Dublin United Tramways Company begin strike action in defiance of the dismissal of trade union members by its chairman.
- August 31 – Dublin Lock-out: "Bloody Sunday": The dispute escalates when the Dublin Metropolitan Police kill one demonstrator and injure 400 in dispersing a demonstration.
- September 9 – In Germany, BASF starts the world's first plant for the production of fertilizer based on the Haber-Bosch process, feeding today about a third of the world's population.
- September – Jean Sibelius leads his tone poem Luonnotar premiere in Helsinki, Finland with soprano Aino Ackté.
- September 17 – In Chicago, the Anti-Defamation League of B'nai B'rith is founded, with Sigmund Livingston as its first president.
- September 23 – French aviator Roland Garros crosses the Mediterranean in an airplane flying from Fréjus, France to Bizerte, Tunisia.
- September 29 – Second Balkan War: The Treaty of Constantinople is signed in Istanbul between the Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Bulgaria.
- October 1 – Mexican Revolution: Pancho Villa's troops take Torreón after a 3-day battle, when government troops retreat.
- October 7 – The Ford Motor Company's Highland Park Plant in Highland Park, Michigan near Detroit becomes the first automobile production facility in the world to implement the moving assembly line, significantly speeding up production of the Model T.
- October 10
- October 11 – The Philadelphia Athletics win the deciding game of the 1913 World Series, over baseball's New York Giants, winning 3–1 to take the series in five games.
- October 14 – Senghenydd Colliery Disaster: An explosion at the Universal Colliery, Senghenydd in South Wales kills 439 miners, the worst mining accident in the United Kingdom.
- October 16 – HMS Queen Elizabeth is launched at Portsmouth Dockyard as the first oil-fired battleship.
- October 18 – The Monument to the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig in Germany is finished.
- October 19 – The DLRG (German Life-Saving Society) is founded.
- October 26 – Victoriano Huerta elected president of Mexico.
- October 31 – The Lincoln Highway, the first automobile road across the United States, is dedicated.
- November 5 – The King Otto of Bavaria is deposed by his cousin, Prince Regent Ludwig, who assumes the title Ludwig III.
- November 6 – Mohandas Gandhi is arrested while leading a march of Indian miners in South Africa.
- November 7–11 – The Great Lakes Storm of 1913 claims 19 ships and more than 250 lives.
- December 1
- The Ford Motor Company introduces the first moving assembly line, reducing chassis assembly time from 12½ hours in October to 2 hours, 40 minutes. Although Ford is not the first to use an assembly line, his successful adoption of one sparks an era of mass production.
- Crete, having obtained self rule from Turkey after the First Balkan War, is annexed by Greece.
- December 12 – Vincenzo Peruggia tries to sell the Mona Lisa in Florence and is arrested.
- December 23 – The Federal Reserve System is created as the central banking system of the United States by Woodrow Wilson's signature of the Federal Reserve Act.
- December 30 – Italy returns the Mona Lisa to France.
- Establishment of Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in present-day Bangladesh (then Bengal Province).
- French physicist Georges Sagnac shows that light propagates at a speed independent of the speed of its source.
- The Camel cigarette brand is introduced by R. J. Reynolds in the United States, the first packaged cigarette.
- The value of world trade reaches roughly $38 billion.
|January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December|
- January 1 – Shek Kin, Hong Kong veteran actor (d. 2009)
- January 2 – Anna Lee, English-American actress (d. 2004)
- January 4 – Malietoa Tanumafili II, Samoan head of state (d. 2007)
- January 6
- January 7 – Victor H. Krulak, United States Marine Corps general (d. 2008)
- January 9 – Richard M. Nixon, 37th President of the United States (d. 1994)
- January 10 – Gustáv Husák, Slovak politician (d. 1991)
- January 11 – Karl Stegger, Danish actor (d. 1980)
- January 15
- January 17 – Everett Parker, American civil rights activist (d. 2015)
- January 18 – George Unwin, British fighter ace of WWII (d. 2006)
- January 22
- January 23
- January 25
- January 29 – Peter von Zahn, German journalist and writer (d. 2001)
- February 2 – Poul Reichhardt, Danish actor (d. 1985)
- February 4 – Rosa Parks, American civil rights activist (d. 2005)
- February 6 – Mary Leakey, British anthropologist (d. 1996)
- February 10
- February 14
- February 19 – Frank Tashlin, American animation director (d. 1972)
- February 20 – Tommy Henrich, American baseball player (d. 2009)
- February 25
- February 26 – George Barker, British poet (d. 1991)
- February 27
- March 1 – R. S. R. Fitter, British writer (d. 2005)
- March 2 – Godfried Bomans, Dutch writer (d. 1971)
- March 4 – John Garfield, American actor (d. 1952)
- March 13
- March 15 – Rosita Contreras (d. 1962)
- March 18
- March 19 – Smoky Dawson, Australian singer (d. 2008)
- March 21 – George Abecassis, English race car driver (d. 1991)
- March 26
- March 29 – R. S. Thomas, Welsh poet (d. 2000)
- March 30
- March 31 – Etta Baker, American musician (d. 2006)
- April 3 – Per Borten, Premier of Norway (d. 2005)
- April 4
- April 7
- April 8
- April 10 – Stefan Heym, German writer (d. 2001)
- April 11 – Oleg Cassini, American fashion designer (d. 2006)
- April 14 – Jean Fournet, French conductor (d. 2008)
- April 16 – Les Tremayne, British-born American actor (d. 2003)
- April 21 – Richard Beeching, Chairman of British Rail (d. 1985)
- April 27 – Philip Hauge Abelson, American physicist, writer, and editor (d. 2004)
- May 1
- May 4 – Hisaya Morishige, Japanese actor (d. 2009)
- May 5 – Tyrone Power, American actor (d. 1958)
- May 8
- May 11 – Robert Jungk, Austrian journalist (d. 1994)
- May 13 – William R. Tolbert, Jr., President of Liberia (d. 1980)
- May 16 – Woody Herman, American musician and band leader (d. 1987)
- May 19 – Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, Indian politician and 6th President of India (d. 1996)
- May 20
- May 22 – Benedict Garmisa, American politician (d. 1985)
- May 24 – Peter Ellenshaw, American matte designer (d. 2007)
- May 26
- May 29 – Tony Zale, American boxer (d. 1997)
- May 31 Peter Frankenfeld, German comedian, radio and television personality (d. 1979)
- June 2 – Elsie Tu, English-born Hong Kong social activist (d. 2015)
- June 6 – Carlo L. Golino, American scholar (d. 1991)
- June 10 – Benjamin Shapira, a German-born Israeli biochemist and recipient of the Israel Prize (d. 1993)
- June 11
- June 13 – Ralph Edwards, American game show host (d. 2005)
- June 18
- June 25 – Cyril Fletcher, British comedian (d. 2005)
- June 26
- June 27 – Richard Pike Bissell, American author (d. 1977)
- June 28 – Franz Antel, Austrian filmmaker (d. 2007)
- June 30 – Alfonso López Michelsen, President of Colombia (d. 2007)
- July 3 – Dorothy Kilgallen, American newspaper columnist (d. 1965)
- July 7 – Pinetop Perkins, American blues musician (d. 2011)
- July 8 – Bill Thompson, American voice actor (d. 1971)
- July 9 – William M. Zachacki, (d. 1969)
- July 10 – Salvador Espriu, Catalan poet (d. 1985)
- July 12
- July 13
- July 14 – Gerald Ford, 38th President of the United States (d. 2006)
- July 15
- July 17
- July 18
- July 22
- July 23 – Michael Foot, British politician (d. 2010)
- July 24 – Robert Emhardt, American actor (d. 1994)
- July 29 – Erich Priebke, German war criminal and leader of the 1944 Ardeatine massacre (d. 2013)
- July 30 – Lou Darvas, American artist and cartoonist (d. 1987)
- August 8
- August 9 – Tadeusz Kotz, Polish World War II fighter ace (d. 2008)
- August 10 – Noah Beery Jr., American actor (d. 1994)
- August 13
- August 16
- August 17
- August 19 – Richard Simmons, American actor (d. 2003)
- August 20 – Roger Wolcott Sperry, American neurobiologist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1994)
- August 26 – Boris Pahor, Slovenian writer
- August 27 – Nina Schenk von Stauffenberg, German wife of freedom fighter Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg (d. 2006)
- August 28
- August 29 – Jan Ekier, Polish pianist and composer (d. 2014)
- August 30 – Richard Stone, British economist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1991)
- August 31
- September 1 – Ludwig Merwart, Austrian painter and graphic artist (d. 1979)
- September 2
- September 4
- September 10 – Lincoln Gordon, American diplomat (d. 2009)
- September 11
- September 12
- September 13
- September 14
- September 15 – John N. Mitchell, United States Attorney General and convicted Watergate criminal (d. 1988)
- September 17 – Robert Lembke, German television presenter and game show host (d. 1989)
- September 19 – Frances Farmer, American actress (d. 1970)
- September 22 – Lillian Chestney, American painter (d. 2000)
- September 23 – Carl-Henning Pedersen, Danish artist, member of the CoBrA movement (d. 2007)
- September 24
- September 25 – Terence Patrick O'Sullivan, British civil engineer (d. 1970)
- September 28 – Warja Honegger-Lavater, Swiss artist and illustrator (d. 2007)
- September 29
- September 30 – Bill Walsh, American movie producer and writer (d. 1975)
- October 10
- October 11 – Joe Simon, American comic book artist and writer (d. 2011)
- October 18 – Evelyn Venable, American actress (d. 1993)
- October 20 – Barney Phillips, American actor (d. 1982)
- October 22
- October 24 – Tito Gobbi, Italian operatic baritone (d. 1984)
- October 27
- November 2 – Burt Lancaster, American actor (Elmer Gantry) (d. 1994)
- November 3 – Marika Rökk, Egyptian-born Austrian singer, dancer and actress (d. 2004)
- November 5 – Vivien Leigh, British actress (Gone With The Wind) (d. 1967)
- November 7
- November 10 – Álvaro Cunhal, Portuguese politician (d. 2005)
- November 13 – Alexander Scourby, American actor (d. 1985)
- November 15 – Arthur Haulot, Belgian journalist (d. 2005)
- November 18 – Endre Rozsda, Hungarian-French painter (d. 1999)
- November 21
- November 22
- November 25 – Lewis Thomas, American physician and essayist (d. 1993)
- December 1 – Mary Martin, American actress (d. 1990)
- December 6
- December 8 – Delmore Schwartz, American poet (d. 1966)
- December 10
- December 13 – Arnold Brown, Salvation Army general (d. 2002)
- December 15 – Muriel Rukeyser, American poet (d. 1980)
- December 16 – George Ignatieff, Canadian diplomat, recipient of the 1984 Pearson Medal of Peace (d. 1989)
- December 18
- December 21 – Arnold Friberg, American artist (d. 2010)
- December 25
- December 28 – Lou Jacobi, Canadian-American actor (d. 2009)
- December 29 – Pierre Werner, Prime Minister of Luxembourg (d. 2002)
- December 30 – Elyne Mitchell, Australian author (d. 2002)
- January 2 – Léon Teisserenc de Bort, French meteorologist (b. 1855)
- January 4 – Alfred von Schlieffen, German field marshal (b. 1833)
- January 16 – Thaddeus S. C. Lowe, American aeronaut, scientist and inventor (b. 1832)
- January 20 – José Guadalupe Posada, Mexican political printmaker and engraver (b. 1852)
- January 27 – Archduke Rainer Ferdinand of Austria, statesman, former Prime Minister (b. 1832)
- February 2 – Gustaf de Laval, Swedish engineer and inventor (b. 1845)
- February 17 – Edward Stanley Gibbons, English philatelist and founder of Stanley Gibbons Ltd (b. 1840)
- February 22
- February 26 – Felix Draeseke, German composer (b. 1835)
- March 10 – Harriet Tubman, African-American abolitionist, humanitarian and spy (b. c. 1822)
- March 11 – John Shaw Billings, American military and medical leader (b. 1838)
- March 18 – George I of Greece, Danish-born elected monarch (b. 1845)
- March 22 – Sung Chiao-jen, Chinese revolutionary (b. 1882)
- March 25 – Garnet Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley, British field marshal (b. 1833)
- March 31 – J. P. Morgan, American financier and banker (b. 1837)
- April 19 – Hugo Winckler, German archaeologist and historian who uncovered the capital of the Hittite Empire (Hattusa) (b. 1863)
- May 1 – John Barclay Armstrong, Texas Ranger and U.S. Marshal (b. 1850)
- May 6 – Elena Guro, Russian painter and writer (b. 1877)
- May 16 – Louis Perrier, member of the Swiss Federal Council (b. 1849)
- June 2 – Alfred Austin, English Poet Laureate (b. 1835)
- June 5 – Chris von der Ahe, German-born American brewer and baseball owner (b. 1851)
- June 8 – Emily Davison, English suffragette (b. 1872)
- June 23 – Nicolás de Piérola, Peruvian president (b. 1839)
- June 28 – Manuel Ferraz de Campos Sales, Brazilian president (b. 1841)
- July 3 – Horatio Nelson Young, American Civil War naval hero (b. 1845)
- July 13 – Edward Burd Grubb, Jr., American Civil War Union Brevet Brigadier General (b. 1841)
- July 19 – Clímaco Calderón, President of Colombia (b. 1852)
- July 20 – Vsevolod Rudnev, Russian admiral (b. 1855)
- July 29 – Tobias Asser, Dutch jurist, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1838)
- August 3– Josephine Cochrane, inventor of the first commercially successful dishwasher (b. 1839)
- August 7 – Samuel Franklin Cody, American/British aviation pioneer (b. 1867)
- August 13– August Bebel, German politician (b. 1840)
- August 22 – Oscar de Négrier, French general (b. 1839)
- September 9 – Paul de Smet de Naeyer, former Prime Minister of Belgium (b. 1843)
- September 29 – Rudolf Diesel, German engine inventor (b. 1858)
- October 5 – Hans von Bartels, German painter (b. 1856)
- October 16 – Ralph Rose, American athlete (b. 1885)
- October 29 – Darío de Regoyos, Spanish painter (b. 1857)
- November 7 – Alfred Russel Wallace, Welsh biologist (b. 1823)
- November 22
- December 1 – Juhan Liiv, Estonian poet and short story writer (b. 1864)
- December 7
- December 12 – Menelik II, Emperor of Ethiopia (b. 1844)
- December 26 (disappeared on this date) – Ambrose Bierce, American writer and journalist (b. 1842)
- Physics – Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
- Chemistry – Alfred Werner
- Medicine – Charles Richet
- Literature – Rabindranath Tagore
- Peace – Henri La Fontaine
- Cottrell, Peter (2009). The War for Ireland, 1913-1923. Oxford: Osprey. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-84603-9966.
- "Over 200 Lost in Storm". The New York Times. 1913-03-08.
- "British Steamer Lost". The Sydney Morning Herald. 1913-03-10. p. 9. Retrieved 2013-01-19.
- "Ship Blows Up". The New York Times. 1913-03-08. Retrieved 2012-10-19.
- "Study for Woolworth Building, New York". World Digital Library. 1910-12-10. Retrieved 2013-07-25.
- Radio Lab, Show 202: "Musical Language", New York: WNYC (21 April 2006). Host/Producer: Jad Abumrad, Co-Host: Robert Krulwich, Producer: Ellen Horne, Production Executives: Dean Capello and Mikel Ellcessor.
- "BBC Radio 4 - Woman's Hour - Women's History Timeline: 1910 - 1919". Archived from the original on 6 January 2008. Retrieved 2007-11-30.
- "Statistics of urban localities (1908–2004)" (PDF). INE. 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-05.
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. p. 94. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- "Airman Uses Parachute", New York Times, August 20, 1913
- Yeates, Padraig (2009). "The Dublin 1913 Lockout". History Ireland 9 (2). Retrieved 2012-10-19.
- Crowhurst, Richard (2005). "A History of Firsts: Portsmouth Historic Dockyard". TimeTravel-Britain.com. Retrieved 2010-09-09.
- 1913 Coin Pictures
- 1913: When Hitler, Trotsky, Tito, Freud and Stalin all lived in the same place (Vienna) BBC News Magazine 17 April 2013
- Charles Emmerson. 1913: In Search of the World Before the Great War (2013) excerpt and text search
- Florian Illies (2013). 1913: The Year Before the Storm. Melville House. ISBN 978-1-61219-352-6.