|Centuries:||18th century – 19th century – 20th century|
|Decades:||1820s 1830s 1840s – 1850s – 1860s 1870s 1880s|
|Years:||1854 1855 1856 – 1857 – 1858 1859 1860|
|1857 in topic:|
|Archaeology – Architecture – Art – Literature – Music|
|Australia – Canada – France – Germany – Mexico – Philippines – South Africa – US – UK|
|Rail Transport – Science – Sports|
|Lists of leaders|
|Colonial Governors – State leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Ab urbe condita||2610|
|British Regnal year||20 Vict. 1 – 21 Vict. 1|
— to —丁巳年十一月十六日
|- Vikram Samvat||1913–1914|
|- Shaka Samvat||1779–1780|
|- Kali Yuga||4958–4959|
|- Ǹrí Ìgbò||857–858|
|Japanese calendar||Ansei 4
|Juche calendar||N/A (before 1912)|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||55 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2400|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: 1857|
Year 1857 (MDCCCLVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar.
- January 1 – The biggest Estonian newspaper Postimees is established by Johann Voldemar Jannsen.
- January 7 – The partly French-owned London General Omnibus Company begins operating.
- January 9 – Fort Tejon earthquake: An earthquake with an estimated magnitude of 7.9 strikes near Parkfield, California.
- January 24 – The University of Calcutta is established in Kolkata as the first multidisciplinary modern university in South Asia. The University of Bombay and one other are also established in the British Raj this year.
- February 3 – The National Deaf Mute College (later renamed Gallaudet University) is established in Washington, D.C., becoming the first school for the advanced education of the deaf.
- February 5 – Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States promulgated.
- March 3
- France and the United Kingdom formally declare war on China in the Second Opium War.
- The largest slave auction in United States history, dubbed as 'The Weeping Time'. Over a 2-day period, Pierce M. Butler sells 436 men, women, children, and infants, all of whom are kept in stalls meant for horses at a racetrack in Savannah, Georgia, for weeks beforehand.
- March 4 – James Buchanan succeeds Franklin Pierce as President of the United States.
- March 6 – Dred Scott v. Sandford: The Supreme Court of the United States rules that Blacks are not citizens and slaves can not sue for freedom, driving the country further towards the American Civil War (the ruling is not overturned until the 14th Amendment in 1868).
- March 12 – Elizabeth Blackwell opens a hospital, the New York Infirmary for Indigent Women and Children.
- March 21 – An earthquake in Tokyo, Japan kills over 100,000.
- March 23 – Elisha Otis' first elevator is installed (at 488 Broadway, New York City).
- April 4 – End of the Anglo-Persian War.
- April 18 – The Spirits' Book (Le Livre des Esprits), one of the Five Fundamental Works of Spiritism, is published by French educator Allan Kardec.
- May 5–October 17 – The Art Treasures of Great Britain exhibition is held in Manchester, one of the largest such displays of all time.
- May 10 – Indian rebellion of 1857: The 3rd Light Cavalry of the British East India Company's army rebels against its British officers, thus beginning the rebellion.
- May 11 – Indian rebellion of 1857: Indian combatants capture Delhi from the East India Company.
- June 6 – Sophia of Nassau marries the future King Oscar II of Sweden-Norway.
- June 26 – At a ceremony in London, Queen Victoria awards the first sixty-six Victoria Crosses to British troops, for actions during the Crimean War.
- July 1–November 19 – Indian rebellion of 1857: Siege of Lucknow.
- July 15 – Indian rebellion of 1857: The second massacre at Kanpur takes place.
- July 18
- August 28 – Matrimonial Causes Act makes divorce without parliamentary approval legally possible in the United Kingdom.
- September – Panic of 1857 begins: Speculation in U.S. railroad shares and collapse of the Ohio Life Insurance and Trust Company trigger a financial crisis which will extend to Europe.
- September 11 – Mountain Meadows massacre in Utah.
- September 12 – The SS Central America sinks off the coast of North Carolina, killing 425 people.
- September 20 – India; British forces recapture Delhi, compelling the surrender of Bahadur Shah II, the last Mughal emperor.
- October 13 – Panic of 1857: New York banks close and do not reopen until December 12.
- October 24 – Sheffield F.C., the world's first association football team, is founded in Sheffield, England.
- November 30 – President of Mexico Ignacio Comonfort is succeeded by Félix María Zuloaga.
- November 30 – The Dunbar wrecked near the entrance to Sydney Harbour, Australia, with the loss of 121 lives.
- December – Reform War in Mexico begins.
- December 16 – An earthquake with an estimated magnitude of 6.9 kills 11,000 people in Naples, Italy.
- December 20 – Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria issues a decree, Es ist Mein Wille, which leads to the demolition of the city walls of Vienna, allowing the construction of the Ringstraße.
- December 31 – Queen Victoria chooses Ottawa, Ontario, as the capital of Canada.
Date unknown 
- The Mormons abandon Las Vegas.
- Kuala Lumpur, the future capital of Malaysia, is founded as a tin mining settlement.
- Hollywood is founded.
- La Tene culture artifacts are discovered in Switzerland by Hansli Kopp.
- Illinois State University, the first public university in Illinois, is established in Normal, Illinois
- American politician William Daniel proposes the Local Option for prohibition.
- 1857–1924 – 7 out of 10 people who land in Argentina are single males between 13 and 40 years old.
- January 4 – Émile Courtet, French caricaturist and animator (d. 1938)
- January 11 – William Gentles, US army private, known for killing Crazy Horse (d. 1932)
- January 12 – Knut Ångström, Swedish physicist (d. 1910)
- January 26 – the 12th Dalai Lama (d. 1875)
- January 31 – George Jackson Churchward, GWR Chief mechanical engineer (d. 1933)
- February 13 – Almanzo James Wilder, American writer (d. 1949)
- February 22
- March 7 – Julius Wagner-Jauregg, Austrian neuroscientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1940)
- March 8 – Ruggero Leoncavallo, Italian composer (d. 1919)
- March 21 – Hunter Liggett, American general (d. 1935)
- March 27 – Karl Pearson, statistician (d. 1936)
- March 30 – Leon Charles Thevenin, French telegraph engineer (d. 1926)
- April 5 – Alexander of Battenberg, first Prince of Bulgaria (d. 1893)
- April 14 – Princess Beatrice, youngest child of Queen Victoria (d. 1944)
- April 22 – Paul Dresser, American songwriter (d. 1906)
- April 30 – Walter Simon, German philanthropist (d. 1920)
- May 7 – William A. MacCorkle, Governor of West Virginia (d. 1930)
- May 13 – Ronald Ross, English physician, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1932)
- May 15 – Williamina Fleming, Scottish astronomer (d. 1911)
- May 19 – John Jacob Abel, American pharmacologist (d. 1938)
- May 24 – Richard Mansfield, Anglo-American stage actor (d. 1907)
- May 31 – Pope Pius XI (d. 1939)
- June 2
- June 12 – Kate Lester, English stage & silent screen actress (d. 1924)
- June 30 – Friedrich von Ingenohl, German admiral (d. 1933)
- July 11 – Alfred Binet, French Psychologist (Stanford-Binet IQ test) (d. 1911)
- July 22 – Shams-ul-haq Azeemabadi, Islamic scholar (d. 1911)
- July 23 – Carl Meinhof, German linguist (d. 1944)
- July 24
- July 25 – Nat C. Goodwin, American actor (d. 1919)
- July 28 – Ballington Booth, Salvation Army Officer and co-founder of Volunteers of America (d. 1940)
- July 30
- August 14 – Max Wagenknecht, German composer (d. 1922)
- August 15 – Albert Ballin, German shipping magnate owner of the Hamburg America Line line (d. 1918)
- September 5 – Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Russian scientist and inventor (d. 1935)
- September 8 – Georg Michaelis, Chancellor of Germany (d. 1936)
- September 13
- September 15 – William Howard Taft, 27th President of the United States (d. 1930)
- September 28 – Lewis Bayly, British admiral (d. 1938)
- October 5 – Peadar Mac Fhionnlaoich, Irish language writer (d. 1942)
- October 24 – Ned Williamson, American baseball player (d. 1894)
- November 5
- November 17 – George Marchant, English-born inventor, manufacturer, and philanthropist (d. 1941)
- November 24 – Miklós Kovács Hungarian Slovene writer (d. 1937)
- November 26 – Ferdinand de Saussure, Swiss linguist (d. 1913)
- November 27 – Charles Scott Sherrington, English physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1952)
- November 28 – King Alfonso XII of Spain (d. 1885)
- December 3 &ndas; Joseph Conrad, Polish-British novelist (d. 1924)
Date unknown 
- February 10 – David Thompson, British-Canadian explorer (b. 1770)
- February 15 – Mikhail Glinka, Russian composer (b. 1804)
- February 16 – Elisha Kent Kane, American explorer of the Arctic regions (b. 1820)
- March 11 – Manuel José Quintana, poet (b. 1772)
- March 26 – Thomas Peters, Dutch supercentenarian (b. 1745)
- May 2 – Alfred de Musset, French poet (b. 1810)
- May 11 – Eugène François Vidocq, French criminal and private detective (b. 1775)
- May 13 – Parley P. Pratt, early Latter Day Saint leader (murdered) (b. 1807)
- May 23 – Augustin Louis Cauchy, French mathematician (b. 1789)
- June 30 – Alcide d'Orbigny, naturalist (b. 1802)
- July 4 – Henry Montgomery Lawrence, soldier and statesman (b. 1806)
- July 15 – Carl Czerny, Austrian composer (b. 1791)
- July 19 – Stefano Franscini, member of the Swiss Federal Council (b. 1796)
- July 29 – Charles Lucien Bonaparte, French naturalist and ornithologist (b. 1803)
- August 3 – Eugène Sue, French novelist (b. 1804)
- September 3 – John McLoughlin, Canadian trapper (b. 1784)
- September 5 – Auguste Comte, French philosopher (b. 1798)
- November 12 – Maximilian Spinola, entomologist (b. 1780)
- November 26 – Joseph von Eichendorff, German poet (b. 1788)
- December 3 – Christian Daniel Rauch, German sculptor (b. 1777)
- December 15 – Sir George Cayley, English aviation pioneer (b. 1773)
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- "Día de la Constitución Mexicana (5 de Febrero)". Guia de San Miguel. 2001. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-26.
- "The Weeping Time". Africans in America. Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 2011-08-26.
- Exhibition of art treasures of the United Kingdom, held at Manchester in 1857: report of the Executive Committee. 1859. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
- Gossett, William Patrick (1986). The lost ships of the Royal Navy, 1793-1900. Mansell. p. 114. ISBN 0-7201-1816-6.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 277–278. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.